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A&P Midterm

A&P Midterm Essay Questions

What are the Four major Classes of Organic Compounds? Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
Describe Structure and Function of Carbohydrates Contains C-O-H (H:O is 2:1). They are components of the cell wall in the form of cellulose. Are used as a source of energy
Describe Structure and Function of Lipids Contains C-H-O (H:O is >2:1 but inconsistent)Includes fats, cholesterol, waxes, and oilUsed as stored energy and as cell structuresThe building block of lipids are fatty acids.
Describe the Structure and Function of Proteins Made of C-H-O-N-S (amino acids)Provides structural support (collagen), act in muscle contraction, as hormones, blood transport, as antibodies, and as enzymes.
Describe the Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids They are DNA and RNA that carry genetic information and pass them down generations. Also acts as ATP and energy transfer.
What are the relevant components of the Plasma Membrane Phospholipids, Protein, Glycoprotein, Cholesterol, Oxygen
Role of Phospholipids in Plasma Membrane Have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails. Water-attracting heads anchor the membrane to cytoplasmWater-hating tails block large water-soluable molecules from passing while permitting fat-soluable molecules to cross freely
Role of Proteins in Plasma Membrane Are embedded in membrane and transports water-soluable molecules such as sugars and amino acids.
Role of Glycoproteins in Plasma Membrane Are proteins bonded to carbohydrates. They identify the cell as belonging to a unique organism allowing the immune system to detect foreign cells.
Role of Cholesterol in Plasma Membrane Acts as a stabilizer that limits the movement of slippery phospholipids from moving back and forth.
Role of Oxygen in Plasma Membrane Diffuses in and out of cell through tiny gaps in the membrane. As the cell consumes oxygen, the higher concentration outside the cell allows the oxygen the free-flow into the cell, allowing the cell to carry out aerobic respiration continually.
Why is Plasma Membrane "mosiac" and "fluid"? "Mosiac" means that the membrane is made up of many different components and can be considered as a two dimentional liquid where all lipid and protein molecules diffuse more or less freely.
Method of Active Transport Uses energy to move a solute "uphill" against a gradient. It can move solutes in and out of a cell but energy is always used to move the solute against the concentration gradient.
Method of Passive Transport Acts a facilitated diffusion where a solute moves down a gradient and no energy input is required.
Created by: teamwells