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Government Ch. 2 Gov

Gillette College -Sheridan- American Gov't Power and Purpose by Lowi, Ginsberg

TermDefinition
Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union America’s first written constitution. Adopted by the Continental Congress in 1777, they were the formal basis for America’s national government until 1789, when they were superseded by the constitution.
Great Compromise An agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its population but linked representation in the House of Reps to population.
Three-Fifth Compromise Agreement reached at the constitutional Convention of 1787 stipulating that for purposes of the appointment of congressional seats, every slave would be counted as 3/5’s of a person.
Bicameralism The division of a legislative body into two houses or chambers.
Expressed Power The notion that the Constitution grants to the federal government only those powers specifically named in its text.
Necessary and Proper Clause Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which enumerates the powers of Congress and provides Congress with the authority to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry them out; also referred to as the elastic clause.
Judicial Review Power of the courts to declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional. The Supreme Court asserted this power in Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Supremacy Clause Clause of Article VI of the Constitution that states that all laws passed by the national government and all treaties are the supreme laws of the land and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any subdivision.
Separation of Powers division of governmental power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making.
Federalism system of government in which a constitution divides power between a central gov’t and regional gov’t.
Bill of Rights the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1791. The Bill of Rights ensures certain rights and liberties to the people.
Checks and balances the mechanisms through which each branch of gov’t is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches.
Federalists Those who favored a strong national government and supported the constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Antifederalists Those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government and who were opponents of the constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787
Year of Declaration of Independence 1776
Year of Constitutional Convention 1787
Year of Ratification of Constitution 1790
Year of Adoption of the Bill of Rights 1791
Years of the Articles of Confederation 1777-1789
Created by: BerScott