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Ch. 7

Ch. 7 anatomy flashcards

Body weight of skeleton 20 percent
Number of bones 206
Two division of the skeleton axial, appendicular
Where is the axial? middle, down the trunk, medial
What does the axial division include? skull, vertebral column, rib cage
What does the appendicular division include? bones of the limbs
What do the girdles connect? limbs to the trunk
What are the 2 types of girdles? pectoral girdle (clavicle & scapula), pelvic girdle (hip (coxals) ilium, ischium, pubis)
What 2 sets of bones make up the skull? cranial (8), facial (14); can be paired or unpaired
Fontanels are the membrane spaces between the cranial bones of infants
Fontanels allow the skull to be compressed during birth
Fontanels allow the brain to grow
Immovable joint that unites cranial bones sutures
Frontal bones meet parietal bones coronal
2 parietal bones meet sagittal
Parietal bones meet occipital lambdoidal
Parietal and temporal on each side squamosal
Paranasal sinuses are air filled cavities within some cranial bones and facial bones
3 functions of the paranasal sinuses decrease weight of the skull, increase the resonance of your voice, warm and humidify inhaled air
4 major sinuses frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillary
Mastoid process contains sinuses-may easily become infected
Mastoid process is next to middle ear and separate from the brain by thin bony plate
Infection of mastoid sinus mastoiditis
Mandibular condyle articulate with mandibular fossa
Hyoid bone in neck
Characteristics of hyoid bone doesn’t form joint, serves as attachment site for tongue and neck muscles, may be fractured by blow to neck
Vertebral column spine, backbone
Characteristics of vertebral column strong but flexible, protects spinal cord, composed of irregular bones, supported by intervertebral discs
Intervertebral discs are cushion like pads between vertebrae – shock absorber
Annulus fibrosus-outer ring of fibrocartilage
Nucleus pulposus-inner (semifluid, pulpy) spongy contents
Herniated disc-slipped disc with ruptured annulus fibrosus
Nucleus pulposus may protrude and press on a nerve
What are the divisions of the vertebral column? cervical vertebrae-7, thoracic vertebrae-12, lumbar vertebrae-5, sacrum-5 fused vertebrae, coccyx-4 fused vertebrae
Congenital, disease, poor posture, unequal abnormal curves
Lateral curve; twisted disease; most common in girls scoliosis
“hunchback” exaggerated thoracic curve (elderly) kyphosis
“sway back” exaggerated lumbar curve-pregnancy, potbelly lordosis
2 causes of abnormal curves congenital, osteoporosis
Body of a typical vertebrae; weight bearing region centrum
2 pedicles 2 lamins (flat plates) vertebral arch
Vertebral foramen-enclosed space-vertebral column contains spinal cord
Intervertebral foramen-side openings where nerves go to and from spinal cord-2 vertebrae together
Prominences or projections processes
Function of processes attachment point for muscles and ligaments, articulate with other vertebrae
Types of processes transverse, spinous
Protrude from pedicale –laminae junctions articular processes
Articular processes 2 superior processes, 2 inferior processes
Smallest and lightest c1-c7
Unususal, highly modified, no intervertebral disc c1 & c2
Atlas c1
Functions of atlas supports the head, articulates with occipital condyles of the skull, has a bony arch with no body, no spinous process
Axis c2
Functions of the axis dens, projects up thru atlas, serves as pivot point for the atlas
Knob like feature odontoid process dens
Prominent vertebrae vertebra prominens-c7
Thoracic vertebrae t1-t12
Characteristics of the thoracic vertebrae articulate with the ribs, possess downward pointing spinous processes
Lumbar vertebrae l1-l5
Characteristics of lumbar vertebrae largest and receive the most stress (small of back), possess short thick projections for attachment of long back muscles, have the most pressure (ruptured discs occur here)
Characteristics of sacrum triangular; formed by fusion of s1-s5 vertebrae
Location of sacrum back wall of pelvis articulates superiorly w/ L5 and inferiorly w/ coccyx
Anterior surface of sacrum bulges into pelvic cavity
Indicates the beginning of the pelvis sacral promontory
Dorsal surface of sacrum rough-median sacral crest (fused with spinous processes)
Sacral canal vertebral canal
Sacral hiatus gap-opening external surface-site for spinal taps
Tailbone coccyx
Chest thorax
Bony components of thorax thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, costal cartilage
3 parts of sternum manubrium, body, xiphoid process
3 anatomical landmarks jugular notch, sternal angle, xiphisternal joint
12 pairs ribs
2 types of ribs true ribs, false ribs
Attached directly to sternum by costal cartilage true ribs
Not attached directly to sternum false ribs
Attached to sternum floating ribs
Created by: charleen920