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A&P Chapter 3

A&P Lecture Week 3

Cell theory the theory that cells are the building blocks of all plants and animals
Properties of cells come from the division of preexisting cells; smallest units that perform all vital physiological functions; maintains homeostasis at cellular level
Germ cells sex cells
Sex cells reproductive cells; in males, sperm; in females, oocytes
Somatic cells all body cells except sex cells
Extracellular fluid interstitial fluid
Interstitial fluid the watery medium that surrounds each cell
Plasmalemma plasma membrane
Plasma membrane separates the cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid
Cytoplasm composed of the cytosol and organelles
Functions of the plasma membrane physical isolation, regulates exchange with environment, monitors environment, structural support
Membrane lipids double layer of phospholipid molecules
Phospholipid a molecule composed of a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail
Function of membrane lipids serve as a barrier to ions and water-soluble compounds
Membrane proteins proteins that are bound to the inner or outer surface of the membrane, or which exist within the membrane
Integral proteins membrane proteins that lie within the membrane
Peripheral proteins membrane proteins that are bound to the inner or outer surface of the membrane
Functional categories of membrane proteins anchoring proteins (stabilizers), recognition proteins (identifiers), enzymes, receptor proteins, carrier proteins, channels
Function of anchoring proteins (stabilizers) attach to inside or outside structures
Function of recognition proteins (identifiers) label cells as normal or abnormal
Function of enzymes catalyze reactions
Function of receptor proteins bind and respond to ligands such as ions and hormones
Function of carrier proteins transport specific solutes through membrane
Function of channels regulate water flow and solutes through membrane
Membrane carbohydrates composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids
Glycocalyx (gly·co·ca·lyx) a sticky sugar coat of membrane carbohydrates surrounding the cell
Functions of glycocalyx lubrication and protection, anchoring and locomotion, specificity in binding, recognition
Cytosol intracellular fluid composed of dissolved materials; high potassium/low sodium, high protein, high carbohydrate, low amino acid and fat
Organelles structures with specific functions
Nonmembranous organelles includes cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribosomes, and proteasomes; in direct contact with cytosol
Membranous organelles includes endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and mitochondria; isolated from cytosol by plasma membrane
Cytoskeleton structural proteins for shape and strength
Types of cytoskeleton fibers microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
Microfilaments thin filaments composed of actin
Functions of microfilaments provide additional mechanical strength; interact with proteins for consistency; pair with thicker filaments of myosin for muscle movement
Intermediate filaments composed of collagen, mid-sized between microfilaments and microtubules
Functions of intermediate filaments create durability, strengthen cell and maintain shape, stabilize organelles, stabilize cell position
Microtubules large, hollow tubes composed of tubulin
Functions of microtubules attach to centrosome during mitosis, strengthen cell and anchor organelles, change cell shape, move vesicles within cells using kinesin and dynein, and form spindle apparatus
Microvilli finger-like outcroppings of the cell that increase surface area for absorption and attach to cytoskeleton
Centrosome cytoplasm surrounding centrioles
Centriole one of 27 short microtubules that forms the spindle apparatus in cell division
Cilia small hair-like extensions that move fluids across the cell surface
Ciliary movement consists of a power stroke, where cilia are fully extended and stiff, and a return stroke, where cilia are soft and relaxed
Ribosome builds polypeptides in protein synthesis; can be free or fixed
Free ribosome manufactures proteins for secretion
Fixed ribosome attached to ER, manufactures proteins for the cell
Proteasome contains protease enzymes that disassemble damaged proteins for recycling
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) literally means "network (reticulum) within (endo-) the cytoplasm (-plasmic)"; contains storage chambers, or cisternae
Functions of the ER synthesizes proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids; stores synthesized molecules and materials; transports materials within the ER; and detoxifies drugs and toxins
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum ER with no ribosomes; synthesizes phospholipids and cholesterol for membranes, steroid hormones for the reproductive system, glycerides for storage in fat and liver cells, and glycogen for storage in muscles
Rough endoplasmic reticulum ER that has ribosomes all over its surface; active in protein and glycoprotein synthesis, folds polypeptide protein structures, and encloses products in transport vesicles
Golgi apparatus membranous organelle that accepts vesicles via its forming face and secretes vesicles via its maturing face
Secretory vesicle a vesicle formed by the Golgi apparatus that modifies and packages products for exocytosis
Membrane renewal vesicle a vesicle formed by the Golgi apparatus that adds or removes membrane components
Lysosome a powerful enzyme-containing vesicle that cleans up inside cells, and can participate in cell self-destruction
Primary lysosome a lysosome created by the Golgi apparatus and inactive enzymes
Secondary lysosome a lysosome fused with a damaged organelle that is isolating toxic chemicals and activating its digestive enzymes
How lysosomes clean up in cells clean up inside cells by breaking down large molecules, attacking bacteria, recycling damaged organelles, and ejecting wastes by exocytosis
Autolysis the process of cell self-destruction, where lysosome membranes break down, releasing digestive enzymes into the cell and decomposing it so other cells can recycle the materials
Peroxisome an enzyme-containing vesicle that breaks down fatty acids and other organic compounds, produces hydrogen peroxide, and replicates by division
Membrane flow continuous exchange of membrane parts by vesicles that allows adaptation and change
Mitochondrion an organelle that takes chemical energy from glucose and produces ATP
Cristae inner folds in the mitochondrial membrane
Matrix fluid around the cristae
Aerobic metabolism the process by which mitochondria use oxygen to break down food and produce ATP; the reactants are glucose, oxygen, and ADP, and the products are carbon dioxide, water, and ATP
Cellular respiration aerobic metabolism
Glycolysis a reaction that occurs in the cytosol that converts glucose to pyruvic acid
Tricarboxylic cycle a reaction that converts pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide that occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion
Electron transport chain - look up in textbook
Nucleus largest organelle, cell's control center
Nuclear envelope double membrane around nucleus
Perinuclear space area between the layers of the nuclear envelope
Nuclear pores communication passages between the inside of the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Contents of the nucleus DNA, nucleoplasm, nuclear matrix, nucleoli, nucleosomes, chromatin, chromosomes
Purpose of DNA contains all information to build and run organisms
Nucleoplasm fluid containing ions, enzymes, nucleotides, and some RNA
Nucleoli related to protein production; made of RNA, enzymes, and histones; synthesize rRNA and ribosomal subunits
Histones proteins that bind DNA in order to compactify it
rRNA ribosomal RNA
Nucleosome one unit of chromatin
Chromatin complex consisting of DNA and attached proteins bound to histone cores
Chromosome a distinct portion of DNA that compactifies into a single unit during mitosis
Gene DNA instructions for one protein
Genetic code the chemical language of DNA instructions, consisting of four types of bases; a triplet of bases codes for a single amino acid
Role of gene activation in protein synthesis nucleus contains chromosomes; chromosomes contain DNA; DNA stores genetic instructions for proteins; proteins determine cell structure and function
Steps of protein synthesis transcription, translation, processing
Transcription copies instructions from DNA to mRNA
Translation ribosome reads code from mRNA in cytoplasm, assembles amino acids into polypeptide chain
Processing chaperone molecules in the RER and Golgi apparatus assist the protein in folding into the appropriate conformation
Steps of transcribing a gene to mRNA gene activation, DNA to mRNA, RNA processing
Steps of gene activation uncoils DNA, removes histones; promoter and stop codons on DNA mark location of gene; coding strand is code for protein, template strand is used by RNA polymerase
Steps of converting DNA to mRNA RNA polymerase binds to promoter sequence; reads DNA code for gene; binds nucleotides to form mRNA; mRNA duplicates DNA coding strand, replacing thymine with uracil
Steps of RNA processing at stop signal, mRNA detaches from DNA; unnecessary codes (introns) removed; good codes (exons) spliced together; three nucleotides (codon) represent one amino acid
Steps of translation mRNA moves from the nucleus to a ribosome and binds to ribosomal subunits; tRNA delivers amino acids to mRNA; tRNA anticodon binds to mRNA codon; enzymes join amino acids with peptide bonds; components separate at stop codon
How the nucleus controls cell structure and function direct control through synthesis of structural proteins and secretions; indirect control over metabolism through enzymes
Permeability the amount of freedom nutrients, products, and wastes have to cross the cell barrier
Impermeable lets nothing in or out
Freely permeable lets anything pass
Selectively permeable restricts movement
Types of diffusion across plasma membranes simple, channel-mediated
Materials that diffuse by simple diffusion lipid-soluble compounds, like fatty acids, steroids, and alcohols; dissolved gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide)
Materials that pass through transmembrane proteins water-soluble compounds and ions
Factors in channel-mediated diffusion size of molecule or ion, electromagnetic charge, interaction with channel
Osmosis diffusion of water across the cell membrane when the amount of solutes is different on either side of the membrane
Role of osmosis in blood pressure when Na+ ions are too concentrated in the blood stream, water in the interstitial fluid osmoses from tissue into the blood, increasing circulating volume and therefore increasing blood pressure
Osmotic pressure the force of a concentration gradient of water; equal to the hydrostatic pressure needed to block osmosis
Hydrostatic pressure pressure applied to a solution with a greater concentration of solutes which prevents water from flowing into the solution
Osmolarity an absolute measure of the osmotic pressure a solution exerts
Tonicity a relative measure of the osmotic pressure a solution exerts on a cell
Isotonic a solution that does not cause osmotic flow of water in or out of the cell
Hypotonic has less solutes and loses water by osmosis
Hypertonic has more solutes and gains water by osmosis
Hemolysis the effect of a hypotonic solution on a red blood cell; the cell ruptures due to an excess of water inside
Crenation the effect of a hypertonic solution on a red blood cell; the cell shrinks and wrinkles due to insufficient water inside
Carrier-mediated transport transport of ions and organic substrates across the cell membrane via transport proteins
Types of carrier-mediated transport facilitated diffusion, active transport
Characteristics of carrier-mediated transport specificity, saturation limits, regulation
Specificity of carrier-mediated transport one transport protein handles one set of substrates
Saturation limits of carrier-mediated transport rate of transport depends on proteins and substrate
Regulation of carrier-mediated transport rate of transport can be affected by cofactors such as hormones or vitamins
Cotransport carrier-mediated transport that involves two substrates moving simultaneously in the same direction
Countertransport carrier-mediated transport that involves one substrate moving in one direction while another substrate moves in the opposite direction
Facilitated diffusion passive carrier-mediated transport; carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through channel proteins, such as glucose and amino acids; receptor is specific to certain molecules
Active transport moves substances against the concentration gradient; requires energy in the form of ATP or similar; ion pumps move ions, and exchange pumps countertransport multiple ions simultaneously
Sodium-potassium exchange pump example of active carrier-mediated transport; takes 1 ATP, moves 2 K+ and 3 Na+ ions
Secondary active transport cotransport; for example, Na+ serves as cofactor for glucose transport, and then is removed by exchange pump
Vesicular transport transporting materials using plasma-enclosed vesicles
Endocytosis bringing materials into the cell via a vesicle
Exocytosis releasing materials from the cell via a vesicle
Receptor-mediated endocytosis receptor glycoproteins bind to ligands; a coated vesicle, or endosome, carries the ligands and receptors into the cell
Pinocytosis carrying extracellular fluid into the cell via endosomes
Phagocytosis cell engulfs a large object, such as a prey cell or an invading bacterium, in a phagosome and digests it
Transmembrane potential unequal electric charge across the membrane that can range from -10 mV to -100mV at rest
Interphase the nondividing phase of a cell's life cycle, consisting of the G1, S, and G2 phases
G1 phase normal cell functions plus cell growth, duplication of organelles, and protein synthesis
S phase DNA replication and histone synthesis
G2 phase protein synthesis
Mitosis cell divides into two identical daughter cells; consists of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Cytokinesis the process of separating genetic material, organelles, and proteins equally between daughter cells
Chromosome tightly coiled DNA that is condensed for cell division
Chromatid a unit of highly compacted DNA
Centromere the central connection for all chromatids in a chromosome
Kinetochore the protein complex around the centromere that attaches to the spindle fibers
Prophase nucleoli disappear, centriole pairs move to cell poles, microtubules extend between centriole pairs, nuclear envelope disappears, spindle fibers attach to kinetochore
Metaphase chromosomes align at the metaphase plate
Metaphase plate the central plane of a mitotic cell where chromosomes align during metaphase
Anaphase microtubules pull chromosomes apart, daughter chromosomes group near centrioles
Telophase nuclear membranes re-form, chromosomes uncoil, nucleoli reappear, cell has two complete nuclei
Cleavage furrow inward growth of new plasma membrane at the metaphase plate during cytokinesis, which results in membrane closure and the formation of two identical daughter cells
Mitotic rate the rate at which a cell divides, which determines lifespan; shorter-lived cells use more energy
Factors that increase cell division internal factors, such as M-phase promoting factor and MPF, and extracellular growth factors
Factors that decrease cell division repressor genes, which are deactivated in cancerous tumors, and worn out telomeres
Telomere terminal DNA segment that allows the full strand to be copied in DNA replication
Stages of cancer development abnormal cell, primary tumor, metastasis, secondary tumor
Benign tumor a mass of cancerous cells that is contained and not life-threatening
Malignant tumor a mass of cancerous cells that invades surrounding tissue and starts new tumors
Metastasis the process by which a cancerous cell splits off of the primary tumor and travels to a secondary site within the body, developing into a secondary cancerous mass
Cell differentiation the process by which cells develop along different paths, by turning off all genes not needed by that cell
Created by: ekolmus



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