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AnS 214L

Animal Science 214L at Iowa State University

TermDefinition
arteri- artery
arth-, arthr- joint
brachi- arm
cardi- heart
carpus wrist
cauda- tail
cephalo-, crani head
cerebro-, encephalo- brain
cervic neck
chond- cartilage
corpus body
cortex shell, outside layer
cost- rib
erythro- red
hemo- blood
leuko- white
myel- bone marrow
myo- muscle
nas-, rhin- nose
neur- nerve
optic-, opt- eye
oss-, osteo- bone
ot-, auri- ear
ped, pod foot
pharyngo-, fauci-, laryngo- throat
pleur- chest lining
pneum-, pulm- lungs
tarsus ankle
thora- chest
trache- windpipe
vaso- vessel
infra- below
inter- between
mega-, megalo- large
semi- half
supra- above
syn- union
-clast to break
-emia blood
-lemma sheath or husk
-plasty plastic surgery
dorsal backside
ventral front, stomach
anterior, cranial, superior towards the head
posterior, caudal, inferior towards the tail
medial toward the middle or body midline
lateral away from the body midline, toward the side
proximal near, close to point under consideration
distal far or away, farther from the point under consideration
Frontal (coronal) plane divides animal into dorsal and ventral portions
Transverse plane divides animal into cranial and caudal portions
Median (midsagittal) plane separate and animal into left and right halves
Sagittal planes any plane parallel to the midsagittal (median) plane, divides animal into left and right portions
secrete produces AND exports the substance out of the tissue or organ
excrete substance is made elsewhere but organ or tissue only exports
Parotid salivary glands below the ears
Submaxillary (submandibular) salivary glands base of jaw on medial edge
Sublingual salivary glands on either side, below the tongue
Saliva contains? Mucin, bicarbonate, water, and--in some species--salivary amylase
Mucin slippery glycoprotein that functions in lubrication
Bicarbonate ionic salt that functions to keep the mouth pH near neutrality
Salivary amylase enzyme that breaks down starch to maltose. Initiates starch digestion
Buccal cavity empty space in the mouth
Hard palate roof of mouth with underlying bone
Soft palate softer tissue posterior to the hard palate
Pharynx open space behind the buccal cavity. Joint passageway for both food and air.
Larynx between pharynx and trachea. Contains vocal cords and functions in vocalization.
Epiglottis blocks larynx during swallowing to prevent food/drink from entering the larynx, and lungs.
Trachea transports air from the larynx to the bronchi. Cartilage rings
Esophagus carries ingested food from the pharynx to the stomach
Pleura membrane lining the walls of the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs. Cushions and provides lubrication to the lungs.
Pericardium membrane surrounding the heart, forms a fluid filled sac that contains the heart. Functions to contain the heart within the chest cavity and prevent heart from over-expanding.
Diaphragm Skeletal muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. Contraction increases size of the thoracic cavity.
Peritoneum membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and surrounds vital organs. Supports vital organs.
Liver major metabolic processing unit that maintains levels of nutrients in the blood. Secretes bile.
Gall bladder stores and excretes bile.
Stomach produces hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen to begin digestion of proteins.
Greater omentum lacey in appearance. Produces leukocytes.
Spleen Two functions: produces lymphocytes and removes old and damaged erythrocytes
Pancreas in duodenal loop of small intestine. Endocrine functions (secretes hormones glucagon and insulin) and exocrine functions (secretes digestive enzymes, such as trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen).
Small intestine digestion of foodstuffs and absorption of digestive products
Duodenum first part of the small intestine. Receives chyme from the stomach. Produces bicarbonate to neutralize acidic chyme. Receives bile from gall bladder and enzymes secreted by the pancreas.
Jejunum middle portion of the small intestine and usually the longest. Digestion of protein and carbohydrate is fairly complete here. Absorption of monosaccharides, amino acids, calcium, and iron (MACI).
Ileum absorption of water, electrolytes, bile salts and vitamin B12 (WEBB). Connects to the large intestine.
Ileocecal valve regulates flow of material from ileum to large intestine
Mesentery folds of peritoneum that connect and anchor the small intestine
Hepatic portal system network of blood vessels that collect blood from the stomach, small and large intestine, and delivers it directly to the liver. Blood will be high in absorbed nutrients.
Cecum blind sac. Microbial fermentation of residual starch and some cellulose. Absorption of fermentation products and water.
Colon longest part of large intestine. Microbial fermentation and absorption.
Rectum last part of large intestine. Formation of characteristic shape of droppings.
Anus external opening of digestive tract
Kidneys removal of waste products from blood and regulation of blood volume and body pH
Urinary bladder stores urine
Exoskeleton hard, outer skeleton that is outside of the body
Endoskeleton skeleton embedded in the muscle
Axial skeleton consists of skull, costae (ribs), vertebrae, and sternum
Appendicular skeleton consists of bones of appendages/limbs
Heterotrophic bones bones embedded in the organs
Os rostrale bone in snout of pig
Ossa cordis bones in heart of cattle, sheep, and goats
Os phrenic bone in the diaphragm of camels
Ossa penis bones in the penis of carnivores and rodents
Scleral rings round bones found in the eyes of birds
Hyoid apparatus bone in tongue of avians and mammals
Origin end of muscle is attached to a stationary part of bone
Insertion end of muscle that is attached to a mobile section of bone
Tendons attach muscles to bone
Ligaments attach bone to bone
Epiphysis two ends of long bone
Diaphysis shaft of long bone
Epiphyseal-Diaphyseal plate growth region between epiphysis and diaphysis
Endosteum membrane lining medullary cavity
Periosteum membrane covering the outer surface of bone compromised of connective tissue
Medullary cavity hollow area in center of bone where marrow is located. Bone marrow produces blood cells.
Diploe spongy bone
Coracoid bone behind clavicle in birds
Pygostyle tailbone of birds
Myoepithelial cells contractile cells that surround alveolus
Medial suspensory ligament primary support for the udder. Runs down the middle of the udder.
Lateral suspensory ligament on sides of udder to provide additional support.
Pudic artery main blood supply to udder
Subcutaneous abdominal veins and pudic veins main blood return pathways to the heart from the udder
Peristalsis progressive alternating wave of coordinated contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle (result: movement)
Segmentation stationary rhythmic contraction and relaxation of circular intestinal smooth muscle (result: mixing)
Biceps femoris on lateral part of hind leg
Cutaneous trunci under skin, horizontal striations, usually comes off with skin
Gastrocnemius middle of hind leg, contracts with movement
Gluteus group anterior to tail
Gracilis medial part of hind leg, thin sheet
Infraspinatus below scapula ridge
Latissimus dorsi caudal of shoulder
Longissimus along exterior of spine
Obliquus externus abdominis lateral of rectus abdominis, striations run diagonally
Pectorales profundi wraps around medial part of front legs
Quadriceps femoris near stifle on cranial part of hind leg
Rectus abdominis stomach region, your "abs"
Semimembranosus inner leg, lateral to Gracilis
Semitendinosus caudal part of hind leg, below tail
Serratus ventralis medial, beneath Latissimus dorsi
Supraspinatus in front of the scapula ridge
Trapezius dorsal of shoulder and looks like a large dark triangle
Triceps group caudal part of front leg
Subscapularis back of scapula
Psoas major ventral to vertebrae and begins caudal to last rib, inside of body
Created by: DLille24