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American Heritage Chapter 2

QuestionAnswer
The Statue of Liberty stands atop Fort Wood on Liberty Island in New York Harbor. In June 1907, this piece of land was still called _______. Bedloes Island
In June 1907, Corporal Edward Ward, a former railroad signal man assigned to the U.S. Army Signal Corps post on Bedloes island, was told by his commanding officer that he and Private Joseph E. Barrett were: going to learn to repair and inflate balloons
The Air Force has evolved from its simple origins as an Army balloon experiment to what it is today. Its first official organization was as: Aeronautical Division, U.S. Army Signal Corps
Rising to 1,400 feet, who recorded the first successful and useful balloon reconnaissance mission for the Army? John La Mountain, a freelance civilian
In August 1861, a Confederate battery fired upon Lowe and his craft. Lowe and the craft escaped unharmed and went on to demonstrate: (2.2.1.1.) how a balloon could effectively direct artillery fire by telegraph
Some historians believe that the use of William Ivy Baldwin's balloon during the Spanish-American war was a determining factor in the victory of this critical battle: San Juan Hill
In 1896, William Ivy Baldwin and his wife built a 14,000 cubic foot silk balloon which was used during the Spanish-American War at the battle of San Juan Hill. That balloon was named: (2.2.1.2.) Santiago
To the extent that the military was interested in aviation, it was interested in balloons, but public enthusiasm for all things aeronautical increased after the Wright brothers flew their heavier-than-air contraption at Kitty Hawk, NC, in 1903
Who competed in the first international balloon race from Paris, France, to Flying Dales, England, winning the 1906 Gordon Bennett trophy, and sparking renewed national interest in aeronautics? Lieutenant Frank P. Lahm and Major Henry P. Hersey
On 2 July 1907, Ward and Barrett left Bedloes island under orders from the War Department to report to: the Leo Stevens balloon factory in New York City
Who were the first enlisted men assigned to the Signal Corps' small Aeronautical Division which eventually evolved into the U.S. Air Force? Private Joseph E. Barrett and Corporal Edward Ward
In August 1907, the newly created, three-person U.S. Army Signal Corps Aeronautical Division took "charge of all matters pertaining to military ballooning, air machines, and all kindred subjects." Who headed the new division? Captain Charles Chandler
"charge of all matters pertaining to military ballooning, air machines, and all kindred subjects." The enlisted detachment grew to include eight others, including Private First Class Vernon Burge, who would eventually become the Army's first enlisted pilot
The Wright brothers arrived at Fort Myers with the U.S. Army's first airplane in _______. August 1908
In August 1908, Ward, Burge, and others were at Fort Myers when the Wright brothers arrived with the Army's first airplane. That plane was designated as _______. Aeroplane No. 1
While the Wright brothers, along with their civilian mechanics, tinkered with the Army's first airplane during the trial and training period, Ward and his crew mostly worked on: Dirigible No. 1 (the first Army dirigible)
The new airplane, designated as Aeroplane No. 1 by the Army, was repaired and flown a number of times over the next few weeks. On 17 September 1908, the plane crashed and _______ died as a result. Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge
In the fall of 1909, Lieutenant Benjamin D. Foulois was in charge of the Signal Corps' one airplane when part of the division was transferred from Fort Myers to _______. Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX
In 1910, due to the Aeronautical Division's lack of adequate funding, Lieutenant Benjamin D. Foulois: spent his own salary to keep the Aeronautical Division's lone plane aloft
A dedicated contingent of enlisted mechanics supported Foulois in his efforts. In one instance, Privates Glenn Madole and Vernon Burge, along with a civilian mechanic, built: a wheeled landing system to ease takeoff and relieve the strain of landing on the aircraft
By October 1912, the Aeronautical Division had 11 aircraft, 14 flying officers, and 39 enlisted mechanics. On 28 September 1912, one of these mechanics, Corporal Frank Scott, became the first enlisted person to _______. die in an accident in a military aircraft
Scott Field, now Scott Air Force Base, in Illinois, was named in honor of _______. Cpl Frank Scott, first enlisted person to die in an accident in a military aircraft
The 1st Aero Squadron (Provisional) was activated on _______. 5 March 1913
Army aviation finally received official status with the passage of U.S. House Resolution 5304 on 18 July 1914 which: all of the these answers
U.S. House Resolution 5304 authorized the Signal Corps to establish an aviation section and created the military rating of aviation mechanician. The law limited the number of such personnel to _______. (2.4.1.) 40
the military rating of aviation mechanician. However, the law limited the number of such personnel to 40 and specified that no more than _______ enlisted men could be trained as aviators. a dozen
In March 1916, President Woodrow Wilson ordered the 1st Aero Squadron to accompany a force he was organizing to protect the border and to apprehend _______. Pancho Villa
In March 1916, President Wilson ordered the 1st Aero Squadron to accompany a force he was organizing to protect the border and to apprehend Pancho Villa. Who led this small aviation force? Major Foulois
When Major Foulois left San Antonio on the campaign to protect the southern border and apprehend Pancho Villa, what type of aircraft did he take? Curtiss JN-3 "Jenny"
the 1st Aero Squadron to accompany a force he was organizing to protect the border and apprehend Pancho Villa. This campaign, which lasted 11 months, was known as _______. the Punitive Expedition
After 11 months of fruitless campaigning, the so-called Punitive Expedition was recalled in 1917. The results of this first demonstration of airpower were disappointing but Foulois and the others learned valuable lessons: all of these answers
Enlisted and civilian mechanics faced countless problems, such as when the laminated wood propellers pulled apart. In response, mechanics developed: a humidor facility to maximize prop life
As early as 1915, Americans flew in the European war with both the French and the British, though it was the American-manned _______ that earned the greatest and most enduring fame. Lafayette Escadrille of France
A little-known fact about the much-celebrated Lafayette Escadrille is that: its roster of aviators included an enlisted man who was also an African-American
As a member of the French Foreign Legion, he earned the Croix de Guerre and went on to become a pilot in the French Lafayette Escadrille. Corporal Eugene Bullard
During WWI, Sergeant Fred C. Graveline, who served as an observer and aerial gunner in the back seat of a DH-4, earned: the Distinguished Service Cross
DH-4 for 15 missions from 30 September to 5 November 1918. During one 35-minute battle, he helped drive off nearly two dozen German planes, shooting down two. (2.5.2.) Sergeant Fred C. Graveline
During the bombing of Navy ships, why was Sergeant Ulysses "Sam" Nero initially disqualified? he failed to follow General Mitchell's instructions
What young bombardier demonstrated the effectiveness of bombing ships from the air by sinking the New Jersey with a single bomb dropped down its smokestack? Sergeant Ulysses "Sam" Nero
Who successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of airpower by directing a series of attacks on Navy ships in 1921? General Mitchell
By the end of WWI, both the Navy and the Army planned to experiment with bombing enemy ships from the air. In 1921, aircrews successfully sank: all of these answers
Air activities through the mid-1920s were relatively limited and generally focused on _______. all of these answers
Who gained fame during this time for flying "around the rim" of the country, a trip of 9,823 miles Master electrician Jack Harding and Sergeant First Class Jerry Dobias
In 1920, the Air Corps flew a round-trip flight of four DH-4Bs from Mitchell Field on Long Island to Nome, Alaska. The flight took 3 months and covered 9,000 miles. Its safety record was largely attributable to: Master Sergeant Albert Vierra
Who served as mechanics on the air service's around-the-world flight in 1924? Staff Sergeants Alva Harvey and Henry Ogden
Whether they were selected or volunteered, enlisted men were the first to try out new parachute designs, and they eventually took over most of the testing and training. The most prominent enlisted parachutist was: Sergeant Ralph Bottriell
The most prominent enlisted parachutist was Sergeant Ralph Bottriell who tested the first backpack-style, freefall parachute on 19 May 1919. Bottriell earned the Distinguished Flying Cross in 1933 for service as: an experimental parachute tester
Who shot down at least one Japanese enemy aircraft and became a hero and the subject of a popular song, "Johnny Got a Zero"? Corporal John D. Foley
the British Army in 1945. Promoted to Chief Master Sergeant in 1962, Airey became the first _______ in 1967 Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force
The first Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force was: Chief Master Sergeant Paul Airey
Who was the first recipient of the Air Force POW medal? Chief Master Sergeant Paul Airey
These all-black combat fighter units formed the famous _______. Tuskegee Airmen
The "first woman in the Air Force," Esther Blake, joined the Army Air Forces in 1944 when she was notified that her son, a B-17 pilot, had been shot down over Belgium and reported missing
Enlisted personnel served with honor throughout WWII. This pilot earned the Air Medal and Silver Star for rescuing 20 rangers from behind enemy lines and, in a separate incident, a P-40 pilot in New Guinea. Staff Sergeant James Nichols
He died during a raid against the last operational Nazi oil refinery on 15 March 1945. Sergeant Sandy Sanchez
when the Air Force officially changed the names of the lower four ranks from private, private first class, corporal, and sergeant to: Airman Basic, Airman Third Class, Airman Second Class, and Airman First Class
When the Air Force became a separate service in 1947, there was, at first, no change in appearance. The distinctive blue uniforms of the U.S. Air Force were introduced only after: large stocks of Army clothing were used up
The distinctive blue uniforms of the U.S. Air Force were introduced only after large stocks of Army clothing were used up and these new terms were gradually introduced: all of these answers
To fill the slots, _______ were selected to staff the 99th Bomb Wing at Westover, MA. enlisted radio and electronic countermeasures operators
electronic countermeasures operators were selected to staff the 99th Bomb Wing at Westover, MA. These personnel served until commissioned replacements were available in late 1964. Some even trained, checked, and certified their own replacements
In December 1972, this B-52 tail gunner shot down an enemy MiG, the first of only two confirmed shoot-downs by enlisted Airmen during the war. Staff Sergeant Samuel Turner
Credit for the fifth overall MiG-21 kill during Linebacker II went to _______. Airman First Class Albert E. Moore
Chief Master Sergeant Wayne Fisk was: all of these answers
Who was the first director of the Air Force Enlisted Heritage Hall on Maxwell AFB-Gunter Annex? Chief Master Sergeant Wayne Fisk
This 3d Security Police Squadron member earned the Silver Star for helping defend Bien Hoa during the North Vietnamese Tet Offensive of 1968 Staff Sergeant William Piazza
he earned the Silver Star for throwing the flare out as it ignited and then leaning outside the aircraft to cut it loose, thus saving the crew and plane. Staff Sergeant Parnell Fisher
On 8 April 2003, this combat controller was the first Airman killed in Operation Iraqi Freedom Staff Sergeant Scott Sather
While providing convoy security support 28 September 2005, in Safwan, Iraq, 21-year-old _______, of Riviera Beach, Florida, became the first Security Forces Airman to die during Operation Iraqi Freedom A1C Elizabeth Nicole Jacobson
_______ WWII enlisted aircrew members earned the United States' highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor, between May 1943 and April 1945. _______ enlisted Airmen received the United States Four, Three
For his actions as a B-17 tail gunner during his first mission against the heavily defended submarine pens at St. Nazaire, France, he earned the first Medal of Honor awarded to an enlisted man Sergeant Maynard H. Smith
Technical Sergeant Forrest L. Vosler, a radio operator on a B-17, became the second enlisted man to receive the Medal of Honor for: his actions during an attack against a submarine base at Bremen, Germany
Staff Sergeant Archibald Mathies was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously for: flying his plane back to England and saving the surviving crewmembers
a radio operator aboard a B-29 attacking a chemical plant at Koriyama, Japan, he earned the Medal of Honor for hurling a burning flare out of the copilot's window and saving his aircraft. Staff Sergeant Henry E. Erwin
this Airman threw himself on an armed Mark 24 flare, dragged it to the cargo door, and heaved it outside as it ignited. President Nixon presented him with the Medal of Honor. Airman First Class John Levitow
He was the sixth enlisted member to earn the Medal of Honor. Airman First Class William H. Pitsenbarger
With remaining crew safely aboard, he finally climbed into an evacuation sling himself, only to be fatally wounded by enemy ground fire as he was being raised into the aircraft. Chief Master Sergeant Richard L. Etchberger
Of the 20 Air Force Cross recipients from the Vietnam conflict, 10 were _______. pararescuemen
This pararescueman earned two Silver Stars and a Purple Heart during his tours in Vietnam and was credited with 51 combat rescues, the most in Air Force history. (2.13.) Sergeant Steve Northern
intense small arms fire while extracting wounded and dead crewmembers from a crashed helicopter in Mogadishu, Somalia TSgt Timothy A. Wilkinson
He was awarded the Air Force Cross posthumously and was one of the seven killed during Operation Anaconda Senior Airman Jason D. Cunningham
Takur Ghar mountain and was posthumously awarded the second Air Force Cross presented to one of the enlisted Airmen who died during the 17-hour ordeal. Technical Sergeant John A. Chapman
Despite being hit three times, he controlled more than 50 attack runs and repeatedly repelled the enemy with "danger close" air strikes. Senior Airman Zachary J. Rhyner
He controlled three "danger close" A-10 strafing runs with exceptional precision against enemy forces just 30 feet away which decimated the enemy and allowed the team to escape without additional casualties. Staff Sergeant Robert Gutierrez
only one officer volunteered for pilot training. A corporal, Vernon Burge, recognizing an opportunity, stepped forward and became: the first enlisted man to train as a pilot
Who was the first enlisted man to train as a pilot? Corporal Vernon Burge
institutional bias limited the number of enlisted pilots before the United States entered WWI. Most of those were commissioned after: the United States formally declared war on the Central Powers
The military withheld official flying status from these men until Congress enacted Public Law 99 in 1941, which provided for: training enlisted "aviation students" who were "awarded the rating of pilot and warranted as a staff sergeant"
He was known as the "Father of Blind Flight" and eventually commanded a flight school in Pennsylvania. Sergeant William C. Ocker
In 1933, the Air Corps called a halt to enlisted pilot training due to _______. a shortage of funds
What was the name of the aerobatics team that predated today's Air Force Thunderbirds? "Three Men on a Flying Trapeze"
the Army Air Forces decided to revitalize the tradition of the flying sergeant and launched a massive program of enlisted pilot training. This occurred: as a second world war loomed
Who was the last enlisted pilot (and one of only two) to serve in the U.S. Air Force after it became a separate service? Master Sergeant George Holmes
in 1942, Congress passed the Flight Officer Act (Public Law 658) which: promoted pilots produced by the Staff Sergeant Pilot program to flight officers
he Air Corps commanders thought it was too expensive to train enlisted pilots because: they could not be moved into officer administrative jobs after their active flying careers
Created by: bigbadbeets09