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A&P Respiratory

Test 3

Define Cellular Respiration Actual use of Oxygen by the cells through the process of metabolism
Define Diffusion All gas exchange is done through diffusion (external respiration through diffusion & respiratory membrane)
Define Internal respiration Exchange of gas between the "cells" of the body & into the blood - exchange of gases between body cells & tissues
Define External Respiration Exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and blood in the lungs
Define Tidal Volume Volume of air exchanged during *quite* breathing, 1 inspiration immediately followed by 1 expiration - normal respiration & amount of breathing were doing when breathing normal
Define Residual Volume Volume of air remaining in lungs after forceful expiration - cant be expelled from lungs
Define Expiratory Reserve Volume Maximum volume of air forcefully exhaled aftera a tidal expiration or normal expiration
Define Inspiratory Reserve Volume Forcefully inhaled after a tidal (normal) inspiration - deep breath
Define Pulmonary ventilation/breathing Movement of air into and out of the lungs that makes gas exchange or respiration possible
The exchange of gas that occurs between blood in tissue capillaries and the body cells is internal or external respiration? Internal
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between air in the lungs and blood in the lungs is called _________ respiration? External
What are the components of the upper respiratory tract? (order)(4) Nose, pharynx, larynx, part of trachea
What are the components of the lower tracts? (order)(3) Part of trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
Which component of the respiratory tract is part of both the upper and lower tracts? Trachea
What are the air-filled cavities in the bones surrounding the nasal cavity? Para nasal sinuses
Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is bound to hemoglobin (T/F) True
An acute inflammation of the lungs in which the alveoli and bronchi become plugged with thick fluid is called? Pneumonia
This may result from the progression of chronic bronchitis or other conditions as air comes trapped within alveoli, causing them to enlarge and eventually rupture. Emphysema
What is an obstruction disorder characterized by recurring spasms of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchial air passages? Asthma
What is the function of the nasal epithelium? Warms air & traps junk in the air we dont want
The passage way that serves both the respiratory and digestive systems is the? Pharynx
What is the cartilaginous flap that prevents food from from entering the larynx? Epiglottis
The trachea branches to form 2 air passages called the? Primary bronchi (left to right)
What are the primary breathing muscles? (2) External inter-coastal & diaphargm
Define Atelecasis Incomplete expansion or collapse of lungs
Define Respiration Exchange of gases or the exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide & its environment - atmospheric air into the lungs & then from the lungs into body cells & tissues
List & describe the 3 pressures important in breathing Atmospheric pressure, intra-alveolar/intra-pulmonary, intreapleural
Define intra-alveolar/intra-pulmonary Air pressure w/in lungs & alveoli
Define atmospheric pressure Pressure of air outside of the body
Define intrapleural pressure Pressure w/in the pleural cavity - negative pressure - prevents lungs from collapsing
What are the muscles of expiration? Internal inner coastal
The collapse of the alveoli following expiration is prevented by what substance in the alveoli? Surfactant
Define breathing cycle One inspiration followed by one expiration
Breathing is controlled by the respiratory center that is located where? Medulla oblongata
The process of gas exchange in the lungs and body tissues occurs by what process? Respirations
The medulla oblongata contains the "respiratory center". Its composed of what 2 components? Describe their functions Medulla Oblongata & Pons; Medulla oblongata controls rhythmic nature of breathing; Pons coordinates the actions of the MO to produce smooth-inspiration & smooth expirations-controls regulate rate & depth of breathing
What factors influence breathing? Direct & indirect
The respiratory center is NOT sensitive to a DECLINE in the oxygen concentration in the blood. T/F True
An increase in body temperature has what effect on the breathing rate? It increases
Oxygen is primarily transported as __________ in RBC's Oxyhemoglobin
Carbon dioxide is primarily transported as ____________ in the blood bicarbonate ions
Would a pulmonary embolism, respiratory distress syndrome and emphysema decrease gas exchange in the lungs? Yes - theres no gase exchange present - all in different ways
The chemoreceptors in the respiratory center are sensitive to changes in the concentrations of what substances 2 in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid? Carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions
A reduced rate and depth of ventilation causes and leads to carbon dioxide retention resulting in an acid-base imbalance known as hypoventilation/respiratory acidosis
An increased rate and depth of ventilation causes_______ and leads to the elimination of carbon dioxide. This acid-base imbalance is known as? Hyperventilation & respiratory alkalosis
Define eupnea Relaxed/quite breathing
Define hyperventilation Rapid/deep respiratory alkalosis
Define hypoventilation Slow/shallow respiratory acidosis
Define dyspnea Difficulty breathing
Define orthopnea Labored breathing when lying flat, thats relieved when sitting up
Define apnea Absence of breathing
Define Cheyne-Stokes respirations Alternating cycles of apnea/tachypnea
Define respiratory arrest Failure to resume breathing
Define Kussmaul respirations Deep & labored breathing
Define asthma Wheezing & dyspnea causes allergies & hypersensitivity to pathogens infecting bronchial tree
Define acute/chronic bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchiles; acute - viral/bacterial; chronic - asthmatics/smokers
Define common cold Viral infection causes excess mucus, sneezing & congestion
Define emphysema D/T long term smoking - effects alveoli rupture, musuc production & impaired gas exchange - form of COPD
Define larygnitis Inflammation of the larygnx
Define pleurisy Inflammation of the parital pleura - lines thoracic cavity & mediastinum
Define pneumonia Acute inflammation of alveoli D/T virus or bacteria, reduce gas exchange space, resulting in low blood oxygen levels
Define rhinitis Inflammation of mucus membranes in nasal cavity
Define sinusitis Inflammation of the sinuses
Define tuberculosis Inflammation caused by bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis
Define lung cancer D/T long term exposure to irritants, metastasizes rapidly & spreads quickly
Define pulmonary edema Fluid in lungs - excess fluid passing from blood into alveoli
Respiratory distress syndrome Disease of newborn infants, usually born prematurely, D/T insufficient surfactant production in alveoli - collapse
Created by: breinard



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