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Study Guide 2

QuestionAnswer
Identify the tissue types & functions of the major layers of skin.
keratinocytes
melanocytes
Langerhans cells
Merkel cells
Identify the layers (strata) of epidermis in correct order (apical to basal) & explain their specific, unique structural characteristics & associated functions.
Distinguish between thick & thin skin (structure, location & function).
epidermal growth involving mitosis
epidermal growth envolving cytokinesis
epidermal growth envolving keratinization
epidermal growth envolving apoptosis
melanin
carotene
keratin
hemoglobin
Explain the variation of skin color, including melanin, hemoglobin, keratin, carotene.
Explain what is meant by “epidermally derived” accessory structures & give some examples.
Describe the structure, function & location of exocrine glands of skin; compare & contrast these glands.
Describe the structure & function of hair, including hair shaft, root, follicle, bulb, matrix; also describe the supporting dermal hair papilla.
hair shaft
hair root
hair follicle
hair bulb
hair matrix
dermal hair papilla
Describe the structure & function of nails, including free edge, body, lunula, cuticle, root, nail matrix.
nail free edge
nail body
nail lunula
nail cuticle
Describe the structure & function of “fingerprints”, including epidermal ridges & dermal papillae
epidermal ridges
dermal papillae
Describe the regions of dermis & explain their specific, unique structural characteristics & associated functions.
Describe the structure & function of dermal accessory structures, including blood capillaries, arrector pilli, Merkel disc, Meissner’s corpuscles, free nerve endings, hair root plexus, Pacinian corpuscle.
blood capillaries
arrector pilli
Merkel disc
Meissner’s corpuscles
free nerve endings
hair root plexus
Pacinian corpuscle
Explain the steps of epidermal (superficial) & dermal (deep) damage repair (wounds or burns); explain the significance of scars.
Explain the integumentary system-level physiology & interactions with other systems, including body temperature homeostasis, protection, sensations, Vitamin D activation, excretion, absorption.
Classify bones by type (long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid) & major division (axial, appendicular) & give an example human bone for each.
long bone
short bone
flat bone
irregular bone
sesamoid bone
Identify the parts of a typical long bone’s structure, describing location & function of tissues (hyaline articular cartilage, compact & spongy bone, yellow & red marrow, connective tissue membranes).
hyaline articular cartilage
compact bone
spongy bone
yellow marrow
red marrow
connective tissue membranes
osteogenic cell
osteoblasts
osteocytes,
osteoclasts
calcification
hydroxyapatite
Describe the histological structure & function of compact & spongy bone; compare & contrast these two types of osseous tissue.
Trace the path of blood (oxygen/nutrients) from outside a typical long bone all the way to an individual osteocyte within an osteon near the periosteum.
Explain the process of intramembranous & endochondrial ossification; distinguish type of tissue before ossification & types of bone formed by each process.
intramembranous ossification
endochondrial ossification
Describe the process of bone growth in length & thickness, including epiphyseal plate changes & factors affecting this process.
Describe the process of adult bone remodeling & effect of homeostatic imbalance between osteoclasts & osteoblasts.
Explain the skeletal system-level physiology & interactions with other systems, including mineral homeostasis, support, protection, assistance in movement, blood cell production, lipid storage.
Describe the structure & function of a typical synovial joint cavity & capsule, including ligament, labrum, menisci, bursa, fat pad.
ligament
labrum
menisci
bursa
fat pad
Explain the function of synovial membrane & synovial fluid.
Identify the anatomical features & movements of the shoulder, elbow, hip & knee joints; compare range of movement in hip and shoulder joints.
Explain how joints are classified structurally & functionally & give specific examples of each type in human body; define ligament, interosseous membrane, tendon, aponeurosis.
ligament
interosseous membrane
tendon
aponeurosis
Created by: jshockley