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Appendix A and C

a-, an, ana- no, not, without
anti- against
ante- before, forward
bi- two, double, both
brady- slow
contra- against, opposite
dys- difficult, painful
endo- within
epi- above, upon
gynec/o woman
hemi- half
hyper- above, excessive
hypo- below, deficient
inter- between
intra- within
mal- bad, poor, abnormal
neo- new
non- not
para- near, beside
per- through
peri- around, surrounding
poly- many, excessive
post- after
pre- before, in front of
retro- behind, backwards, upward
semi- half
sub- below, under
syn- together, with
tachy- fast
tri- three
-algia pain
-cyte cell
-ectomy surgical removal, exision
-emesis vomit
-emia blood
-ism condition
-itis inflammation
-lepsy seizures
-oid resembling, like
-(o)logist specialist in the study or treatment of
-(o)logy study of
-oma tumor
-osis abnormal condition
-ostomy creation of an opening
-otomy incision into
-pathy disease
-phobia abnormal fear
-plasty surgical repair
-pnea breathing
-rrhea flow, discharge
-sclerosis hardening
-stasis control, stop
abdomin/o abdomin
arteri/o artery
arthr/o joint
ather/o fat, fatty plague
audi/o hearing, sound
aur/o ear
bronch/o brohusnc
bucc/o cheek
carcin/o cancer
cardi/o heart
cerebr/o cerebrum
coagul/o clotting
cyst/o bladder, sac
cyt/o cell
derm/o, dermat/o skin
electr/o electricity
encephal/o brain
eosin/o, erythr/o red
gastr/o stomach
gyn/o, gyn/e, gynec/o woman
hemat/o, hem/o blood
hepat/o liver
hydr/o water, fluid
hyster/o uterus
immune/o protection
lip/o fat
lymph/o lymph
muc/o mucus
my/o muscle
narc/o sleep
nas/o nose
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
oculo/o, ophthalm/o, opt/o eye
or/o mouth
oste/o bone
pancreat/o pancreas
phleb/o vein
phot/o light
pneum/o lungs, air
proct/o rectrum
psych/o, psych/i mind or soul
pulmon/o lungs
quadr/i four
rect/o rectum
ren/o kidney
rhin/o nose
septi bacteria
thorac/o chest
thromb/o clot
trache/o trachea
urethr/o urethra
ven/o vein
cerebrospinal Pertaining to the brain and the spinal cord
cerebrovascular Pertaining to the brain and blood vessels that supply it
epidural Pertaining to above the dura mater
epilepsy A disorder of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures
meningitis Inflammation of the meninges of the brain
neuralgia Nerve pain
neurologist A physician who specializes in diseases of the neurological system
schizophrenia a type of psychosis in which the mind is said to be split from reality
bradycardia Pertaining to a slow heart rate
cardiologist A physician who specializes in diseases of the heart
cardiomyopathy Disease of the heart muscle
endocardium Membrane lining the cavities of the heart
hypertension High blood pressure
hypoxemia Too little oxygen in the blood
myocarditis Inflammation of the heart muscle
myocardium Heart muscle tissue
pericardium Lining around the outside of the heart
tachycardia Pertaining to a fast heart rate
bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchi
dyspnea Difficult, painful, or faulty breathing
hypoxia A condition of deficient oxygen levels
pharyngitis Inflammation of the pharynx
pulmonologist Specialist in diseases of the lungs
rhinoplasty Surgical repair of the nose
rhinorrhea Discharge of the nose
spirometry Measurement of breathing
stethoscope Instrument used to listen to lung and heart sounds through the chest wall
arthritis Inflammation of the joints
bursitis Inflammation of the bursa, a fluid-filled sac around joints
intramuscular Pertaining to within the muscle
myalgia Muscle pain
orthopedic Literally, means pertaining to straight foot Pertaining to the study of diseases of the skeletal and muscular system
tendinitis Inflammation of the tendon
endocrinology Study of the secreting glands that comprise the endocrine system
hyperglycemia Too much sugar in the blood
hyperthyroidism Condition of too much thyroid hormone
hypokalemia Low blood potassium
pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas
autoimmune The disorder characterized by abnormal function of the immune system that causes the body to produce antibodies against itself
immunocompromised A condition in which the immune system has been compromised by disease or immunosuppressive agents
leukemia A malignant blood disease marked by abnormal white blood cells, or leukocytes
metastasis The spread of cancer cells beyond the original site of the tumor through blood or lymph
anemia A blood condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red blood cells
hematology Medical study of the blood
myeloma Tumor of the bone marrow
cholecystectomy Surgical removal of the gall bladder
cirrhosis Chronic liver condition that causes yellowing of tissues
colonoscopy Process of viewing the colon
dyspepsia The condition of indigestion, or of painful digestion
dysphagia Pertaining to difficulty in eating or swallowing
esophagitis Inflammation of the esphagus
gastroenterologist Specialist in the study of treatment of the stomach and intestines
nasogastric Pertaining to the nose and the stomach (a tube that travels from the nose to the stomach)
pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas
sublingual Pertaining under the tongue
nephrectomy Surgical removal of a kidney
polyuria Condition in which one urinates excessively
pyelonephritis Inflammation of the renal pelvis area of the kidney
urologist Physician who specializes in conditions of the urinary stystem
conjunctivitis Inflammation of the conjunctiva
intraocular Pertaining to the inside of the eye
ophthalmologist Specialist in diseases of the eye
optometry Process of measuring the eye
photophobia Extreme sensitivity and discomfort from light
myringitis Inflammation of the tympanic membrane
otitis Inflammation of the ear
dermatitis Inflammation of the skin
dermatologist Specialist in the study of diseases of the skin
epidermal Pertaining to the skin
histology The study of tissues
percutaneous Through the skin
subcutaneous Pertaining to below the skin
gynecologist A physician who specializes in the reproductive system of woman
hysterectomy The surgical removal of the uterus
mammogram An x-ray of the breast
obstetrics The specialty pertaining to the care and treatment of mother and fetus through-out pregnancy, childbirth, and the immediate postpartum period
vasectomy Excision of part of the vas deferens to produce male sterility
absorption The amount of medicine that enters the bloodstream, or systemic circulation
accreditation The process of granting recognition or vouching for compliance with established criteria (usually refers to recognition of an institution or program)
adjudication Prescription claims adjudication refers to the determination of the insurer's payment after the member's insurance benefits are appplied to a medical claim
aseptic technique The technique and procedures designed to prevent contamination of drugs, packaging, equipment, or supplies by microorganisms during prepartation
automated dispensing technology Electronic storage cabinets or robotics that secure medications and despense them to nurses or tother caregivers when needed
automated medication dispensing device A drug storage device or cabinet that contains an inventory of medications that are electronically dispensed so they may be administered to patients in a controlled manner
Average wholesale price (AWP) A commonly used benchmark for billing drugs that are reimbursed in the community pharmacy setting. The AWP for a drug is set by the manufacturer of the drug.
Beyond-use labeling A date that is given to a medication noting when it should no longer be used, also referred to as the expiration date.
Bioavailability The percentage of an administered dose of a medication that reaches the bloodstream.
Brand-name drug A drug that is covered by a patent and is therefore only available from a single manufacturer.
Buccal A solid medication dosage form that is placed in the pocket between the cheek and gum and absorbed through the cheek into the bloodstream.
Centralized dispensing automation Technology that assists in the selection and dispensing of drug products that are located in the central location, such as the pharmacy, and that can include robotics and carousels that use bar code scanning to select and label drug products for patients.
Centralized pharmacy Pharmacy services that are provided from one location (usually centrally located) in the hospital. Pharmacy personnel, resources, and functions primarily reside within this self-contained location.
Chain pharmacy A pharmacy that is part of a large number of corporately owned pharmacies that use the same name and carry similarly branded OTC products.
Community pharmacy Generally a stand-alone pharmacy located within a community provides medication services to ambulatory patients.
Compounding Ususally takes place in a pharmacy and includes the preparation, mixing, packaging, and labeling of a small quantity of a drug based on a practitioner's prescription or medication order for a specific patient
Controlled substances Drugs or chemical substances whose possession and use are regulated under the Federal Controlled Substances Act and by state controlled substance laws and regulations.
Copayment (Copay) The portion of the cost of a prescription that the patient is responsible for paying when a part of the cost is covered by a third-party payer.
Decentralized pharmacy Pharmacy services that are provided on or near a patient care area. These services are often supported by a central pharmacy. A pharmacy satellite is an example of one form of a decentralized pharmacy service
Direct purchasing The act of preparing a medication for use by a patient as authorized by a prescription.
Drug distribution services The system(s)used to distribute medications that begins when the medication is received by the pharmacy and ends when the medication is administered to the patient.
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) The federal agency that administers and enforces federal laws for controlled substances and illegal substances such as narcotics and other danerous drugs. The DEA is part of the U.S. Department of Justice.
Durable medical equipment Reusable equipment used for the treatment of illness or injury (wheelchairs, walkers, blood)
Electronic medication administration record (eMAR) A component of the computerized patient medical record in which nurses and other healthcare providers document times and dates when a medication was administered to the patient
Elixir A clear, sweet, flavored water-and-alcohol (hydroalcoholic) mixture intended for oral use.
Excretion The irreversible removal of a drug or metabolite from a body fluid. The most common location of drug excretion in the body is the kidneys; the biliary tract is another important route of excretion.
Formulary A specific list of drugs that are included with a given prescription drug plan.
Generic drug A drug that is no longer covered by a patent and is therefore generally available from multiple manufacturers, usually resulting in a significant reduction in cost.
Hazardous material Any material that poses a risk to people, animals, property, or the environment
Health Insurance Portablility and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Federal legislation enacted to establish guidlines for the protection of patients private health information
Hospital formulary An approved list of medication that are routinely stocked in the hospital pharmacy to treat the types of patients the hospital typically serves
Inhalant A fine powder or solution of a drug delivered as a mist through the mouth into the respiratory tract.
Intracardiac Injected directly into the heart muscle
Intradermal Injected into the top layers of the skin
Intramuscular Injected directly into a large muscle mass, such as the upper arm, thigh, or buttock, and absorbed from the muscle tissue into the bloodstream
Intrathcal Injected into the space around the spinal cord
Intravenous Injected directly into a vein and therefore immediately available to act in the body
Legend drug A drug that is required by federal law to be dispensed by prescription only. It is the older term for drugs that are now identified as "RX Only"
Licensure The process by which an agency of the government grants permission to an individual a degree of competency necessary to ensure that public health, safety, and welfare will be protected
Lozenge A hard, disk-shaped solid medication dosage form that contains medication in a sugar base, which released as the lozenge is held in the mouth and sucked
Mail-order pharmacy A pharmacy that functions like a warehouse, with pharmacists and technicians who dispense prescriptions that are mailed to (not picked-up)by patients
Material safety data sheets Information sheets proveded by manufacturers for chemicals or drugs that may be hazardous in the workplace. They provide information for their safe use, and recommendations to treat an exposure or clean up a spill
Medication administration record (MAR) A component of the paper patient medical record in which nurses and other helathcare providers document times and dates when a medication was administered to the patient
Medication error Any error occurring in the medication use process
Medication order A written, electronic, telephone, or verbal request for a patient medication in an inpatient setting.
Medication therapy management (MTM) A service or group of servies that optimize therapeutic outcomes of a patient.
National Drug Code (NDC) A unique number assigned to each drug, strength, and package size for the purpose of identification.
Ointment A semisolid medication dosage form, applied to the skin or mucous membranes, which lubricates and softens or is used as a base for drug delivery.
Parenteral A route of medication administation that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract, such as intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous administration.
Patient counseling The act of educating a patient, by apharmacist, regarding the proper use of a prescribed drug, at the time of dispensing.
Patient profile A list of information about the patient, name, identification number, DOB, sex, height, weight, lab values, diagnoses, room and bed number, doctor, allergies, medication history, special considerations and clinical comments.
Pharmacist A health care professional licensed by the state to engage in the practice of pharmacy. Training in pharmacology (study of drugs), pharmacokinetics (the process absorbed, distributed, metabolized,eliminated in the body.
Pharmacy satellite A physical space located in or near a patient care area that can provide a variety of distributive and clinical services.
Practice of pharmacy The practice of pharmacy is regulated by each state through its pharmacy laws and regulations.
Prescription The written or verbal authorization, by an authorized prescriber, for the use of a particular pharmaceutical agent for an individual patient. This term also refers to the physical product dispensed.
Primary prescription label A label, afficed to a dispensed drug product, that contains legally required information, including pharmacy name and address, patient name, prscriber name, drug name, dirction for use, date dispensed, cautionary statements, lot number, expiration date
Professionaln A person who practices an occupation or vocation that requires advanced specialized training.
Professionalism Actively demonstrating the attitudes, qualities and behaviors of a professional while performing the duties of one's profession "putting the needs of others before your own."
Purchase order A document executed by a purchaser and forwarded to a supplier that is considered a legal offer to buy products or services.
Registration The process of maiking a list or being enrolled in an existing list. PT may be required to be registered w/ state board of pharmacy
STAT Latin word statim, need of the drug right away
Stock rotation Placing the products that will expire the soonest in the front of the shelf or bin and those with later expiration dates behind them.
Subcutaneous Deposited in the tissue just under the skin.
Sublingual Placed under the tonue, where it dissolves and is absorbed into the bloodstream.
Suspension A mixture of fine particles of an undissolved solid spread throughout a liquid or, less commonly, a gas
Technician An individual skilled in the practical or mechanical aspects of a profession. A pharmacy technician assists pharmacists by perfoming routine, day-to-day functions of the practice of pharmacy that do not require the judgment of a pharmacist.
Topical Applied to the skin, mucous membranes, or other external parts of the body, such as fingernails, toenails, and hair.
Transdermal Through the skin; percutaneous.
Unit dose distribution system A system that provides all or most medications to patinets in a unit dose ready-to-admisister form.
Unit-dose package A non-reusable container designed to hold a quantity of drug to be administered as a single dose.
Wholesaler A large-scale warehouse with drugs and supplies located in various geographic regions that exist to help bring pharmaceutical products closer to the market.
Created by: lisamarie30