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A&P Chpts. 5,6,8

List the anatomy of the Integumentary System? 1)Epidermis and epidermal derivatives (hair, nails. Sweat glands, sebaceous glands), 2)Dermis and hypodermis
What are the functions of Integumentary System? 1) First line defense against foreign invaders and other environmental assaults. 2) Thermoregulation 3) Vitamin D synthesis 3) Excretion 4) Immunity
List 4 types of cells found within the epidermis kerationcytes, melanocytes, langerhans cells, and merkels disks
kerationcytes produce a tough waterproof protein called keratin, that forms a protective barrier. Found in hair, nails, and the epidermis.
melanocytes Produce melanin, a pigmented protein that protects cells from UV damage.
langerhans cells are derived from white blood cells. These cells present antigens (surface proteins from pathogens) to Immune system cells like T-cells.
merkels disk epithelial cells that are closely bound to sensory receptors. Aid in sensation.
what amino acid is melanin derived from? tyrosine
What is a mechanism that causes albinism? Individuals, who are phenotypically albino, have the same number of melanocytes as an individual whose skin, hair, and eyes are pigmented. In albinism, the melanocytes lack the enzyme, tyrosinase, which converts tyrosine into melanin. No pigment produced
Give an example of how UV suppresses the immune system. UV is highly mutagenic to DNA, which damages a cell and all the cells that are derived from it. UV disables antigen presenting cells. Once disabled, they cannot present antigens to the T-cells of the immune system and this defense mechanism is bypassed.
What happens if a foreign body makes it through the skin’s first defense? In the epidermis: mast cells in the dermis send out chemical alarms, triggering inflammation. Inflammation includes vasodilation of blood vessels allowing white blood cells to leak out from the capils. into the damaged skin. WBC's remove foreign substance
How do glands contribute to the skin’s protective qualities? Sweat glands produce lysozymes that can break down bacterial cell walls. Metabolism of sebum produces free fatty acids on the skin’s surface contributing to skin’s acidity/ lactic acid. Acidity is destructive to pathogenic bacteria.
Describe the embryological development of the Integumentary System. on paper-->
Describe the process of keratinization. on paper-->
name 5 function of the skeletal system support, protection, movement, mineral storage, blood cell formation
support ex Holding the body up against gravity
protection ex The skull protecting the brain,
movement ex Muscles connected to bones by tendons contract and shorten, thus creating movement
mineral storage ex Calcium stored
blood cell formation ex Red bone marrow in the epiphyses of long bones, flat bones of skull, pelvis, sternum, and ribs contribute to the formation of new blood cells.
At 6 weeks Formation of hyaline cartilage model. Apoptosis sculpts final 3-d shape of what the bones will look like.
At 12 weeks Cartilage model transforms into a hard mineralized structure. This ossification process is the same for all bones, except the skull and clavicle, and it is called Endochondral Ossification.
After birth only long bones grow. They lengthen by endochondral ossification at the epiphyseal plate.
What is the function and location of Osteocytes, Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts? Osteocytes- Lacunae, caretaker cells. Osteoblasts-Periosteum, make new bone Ocsteoclasts- Periosteum, Break down bone
Name the 4 zones and that changes that are occurring in the tissue in each zone. Resting Cartilage- Normal hyaline cart. Proliferation- Stacks of hyaline chondrocytes rapidly undergoing mitosis. Bone is lengthened. Hypertrophy- Chondrocytes enlarge, change shape. Calcification- chondrocytes released hardened mineralized bony matrix
What type of cartilage is embryonic cartilage made of? Epiphyseal disk? Articular cartilage hyaline cartilage
Describe the role of bone tissue in maintaining homeostasis of blood calcium concentrations (levels When blood calcium levels get low, Osteoclasts break down bone matrix, thereby releasing calcium into the circulatory system.When blood calcium levels become high, osteoblasts become stimulated to increase bone deposition and inhibit osteoclast activity
What are 3 tissues that comprise bone as an organ? Bone tissue, Fibrous connective tissue, Cartilage tissue
What is yellow marrow and red marrow? Where are each stored? Red marrow produces red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells. Found in spongy bone. Yellow marrow is storage of fat. Found in medullary cavity.
What are hormones that affect bone growth? Human Growth Hormone, Estrogen, Testosterone
Why are secondary cancers, such as leukemia, a potential side effect when treating bone cancer? Tissues with high cell turnover are more likely to mutations from radiation therapy.Blood cells in red marrow are continuously being produced and susceptible to DNA mutations: lead to sec.cancers like leukemia b/c the stem cells that mature are damaged
The general steps of endochondral ossification are on paper-->
What is an articulation? A joining of 2 bones. Does not refer to movement. Articulations can be moveable or immovable.
Name 3 types of fibrous joints. Suture (i.e. Coronal Suture), Syndesmoses (i.e. Radioulnar Syndesmoses), Gomphoses (i.e. Teeth joined to mandible)
Name 2 types of cartilaginous joints. Synchondroses- comprised of hyaline cartilage (i.e.Epiphyseal Growth Plate), Symphyses- comprised of fibrocartilage (Pubis Symphysis)
What is a stynoses? Ossified synchondroses (i.e. Epihyseal Line)
What are synovial joints? Fluid –filled joints. Most joints of the appendicular skeleton are synovial, and are the joints that allow for the greatest motion
Name 4 structures found in synovial joints. Articular cartilage, Joint Cavity, Joint Capsule, Synovial Fluid
Name 2 structures that produce synovial fluid. Both the Synovial Membrane and Articular Cartilage produce extracellular substances that comprise the synovial fluid.
Plane ex Intervertebral, Uniaxial
Saddle ex Thumb, Biaxial
Hinge ex Elbow, Uniaxial
Pivot ex Radioulnar, Uniaxial
Ball & Socket ex Shoulder, Multiaxial
Ellipsoid ex Atlantooccipital, Biaxial
flexion? towards the anterior of the coronal plane,
extension? towards the posterior of the coronal plane,
hyperextension? Extension beyond 180 degrees
dorsiflexion? Bringing the foot up towards the shin.
Plantar flexion? standing up on your toes/ball of foot
adduction ? Movement towards the median
abduction? Movement away from the midline
rotation? movement about the long axis
pronation? Forearm with palm facing down
supination? Forearm with palm facing up,
circumduction? Movement in a cone that involves; flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction
What joint has the greatest movement? shoulder (circumduction)
articular cartilage hyaline cartilage see at the end of long bones to protect one another
blood vessel carry nutrients and wastes out of bone tissue
cancellous bone red marrow where blood cell production occurs
compact bone bone strength rigidity
diaphysis long shaft portion of long bone (compact bone)
endosteum connective tissue on inside of bone
epiphyseal line ossified line where hyaline disk in the epiphyseal plate is
medullary cavity hollow portion within diaphysis-stores yellow marrow
periosteum connective tissue on outside of bone
yellow marrow stores fat
epiphysis the end caps of long bones
Created by: Khuller



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