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Chapter 3


Potential energy stored energy
Kinetic energy energy of motion/movement
Chemical energy Energy stored in a molecule's chemical bonds. Most important type of energy in human body.
ATP Adenosine triphosphate
Three important molecules in the human body function primarily in chemical energy storage: Triglycerides, Glucose, ATP
Triglycerides involved in long-term energy storage in adipose connective tissue
Glucose stored in the liver and muscle tissue in the form of the polymer glycogen
ATP stored in all cells in limited amounts and is produced continuously and used immediately for cells' energy-requiring processes
Electrical energy Movement of charged particles. ex: impulse by a neuron due to the movement of ions across its plasma membrane
Mechanical energy An object in motion. ex: muscle contraction for walking, pumping action of heart to circulate blood
Sound energy Molecules that move in a solid, liquid or gas is caused by a vibrating object. ex: vibration of vocal cords, vibration of tympanic membrane in ear
Radiant energy Energy of electromagnetic waves traveling in the universe. ex: gamma rays, xrays, UV light
Heat Kinetic energy associated with random motion of atoms, ions or molecules. Usually considered a waste product. Only type of energy that is not available to do work.
Temperature Measurement of heat of a substance
Thermodynamics Study of energy transformations
First law of thermodynamics Energy can not be created or destroyed, it can only be transformed or converted from one form to another.
Second law of transformation Every time energy is transformed from one form to another, some of the energy is converted to heat.
Metabolism Collective term for all chemical reactions in living organisms.
Chemical reaction Occurs when chemical bonds in an existing molecular structure are broken and new ones formed to product different structures.
Chemical equation When chemical structures are changed, a summary of their changes is written in this form.
Reactants Substrates or substances that are present prior to the start of the chemical reaction - written on the left side of the equation
Products Substances that are formed by the subsequent chemical reaction and they are generally written on the right side of the equation.
Decomposition reaction The initial large molecule is digested or broken down into small structures. Occurs during the hydrolysis reaction.
Catabolism All decomposition reactions are collectively referred to as.....
Synthesis reaction Occurs when two or more atoms, ions or molecules are combined to form a larger chemical structure as existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. ex: dehydration reaction
Anabolism Collective term for all synthesis reactions in the body.
Exchange reaction Atoms, molecules, ions or electrons are exchanged between two chemical structures. It is the most prevalent in the human body. ATP production is an example.
Oxidation-Reduction reaction (redox reaction) Specific type of exchange reaction that involves the movement of electrons from one chemical structure to another.
Oxidation When a molecule, atom or ion LOSES an electron.
Reduction When a molecule, atom or ion GAINS an electron.
NAD - Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Modified dinucleotide that is linked at the phosphates and contains nicotinamide. Important in ATP synthesis.
Exergonic reactions Reactants at the start of a reaction that have more energy within their chemical bonds than do the products that are formed. (Energy goes out or is released during the course of breakdown reactions.) ex: Decomposition reactions
Endergonic reactions Reactants that have less energy within their chemical bonds than do the products. (Energy must be put in or supplied in order to proceed)
Irreversible reaction Reactants converted to product at a rate that yields a net loss of reactants and a net gain in product.
Reversible reaction It does not proceed only to the right with reactants becoming products over time, but instead reactants become products at a rate equal to products becoming reactants.
Reaction rate Measurement of how quickly a chemical reaction takes place.
Activation energy The energy required to break existing chemical bonds
Created by: daydreamer67