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Chapter 23

The Respiratory System

QuestionAnswer
upper respiratory system consists of nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx
lower respiratory system larynx (voice box), tranchea (windpipe), brinchi, bronioles, and the aveoli of the lungs
respiratory tract consists of the airways that carry air to and from the exchange surfaces of your lungs
what does the respiratory tract consist of? conducting portion and respiratory portion
alveoli air filled pockets within the lungs where all gas exchange between air and blood occur
respiratory mucosa lines the conducting portion of the respiratory system
lamina propria the underlying layer of areolar tissue that supports the respiratory system, trachea, and bronchi. The lamina propria contains mucous glands that discharge their secretions onto the epithelial surface
respiratory defense system filtration mechanisms that prevent contamination by debris or pathogens
cystic fibrosis congenital respiratory illness
external nares nostrils;air enters thru here to get to the nasal cavity
vestibules space contained within the flexible tissues of the nose. The epithelium of the vestibules contains course hairs that extend across the external nares (nostrils)
nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into left and right portions
superior, middle, inferior meatuses project towards the nasal septum from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity. They are narrow grooves rather than open passageways; incoming air bounces off the conchal surfaces and churns like a stream flowing over rapids.
hard plate made up of portions of the maxillary and palatine bones, forms the floor of the nasal cavity and separates it from the oral cavity
soft palate extends posterior to the hard plate, marking the boundary between the boundary between the superior nasopharynx and the rest of the pharynx
nasopharynx superior portion of the pharynx. It is connected to the posterior portion of the nasal cavity through the internal nares and is separated from the oral cavity by the soft palate.
epistaxis nose bleeds
pharynx chamber shared by the digestive and respiratory systems. It extends between the internal nares and the entrances to the larynx and esophagus. Closely bound to the axial skeleton, but the lateral walls are closely bound to the axial skeleton
oropharynx extends between the soft palate and the base of the tongue at the level of the hyoid bone.
larngopharynx the inferior part of the pharynx, includes the portion of the pharynx between the hyoid bone and the entrance of to the larynx and esophagus
glottis inhaled air leaves the pharynx and enters the larynx through a narrow opening called the glottis
larynx a cartilidge structure that surrounds and protects the glottis. Has incomplete cartilaginous walls that are stabilzed by the ligaments and skeletal muscles
thyroid cartilage largest larynx cartilage.Consists of hyline cartilage and it forms most of the anterior and lateral walls of the larynx
cricoid cartilage provides support in the absence of the thyroid cartilage. Protects the glottis and the entrance to the trachea
epiglottis projects superior to the glottis and forms a lid over it
arytenoid cartilage (larynx) articulate with the border of the enlarged portion of the cricoid cartilage
corniculate cartilage (larynx) involved with the arytenoid cartilages with the opening and closing of the glottis and the production of sound
cuneiform cartilages elongated and curving and lies within folds of the tissue that extend between the lateral surface of each arytenoid cartilidge and the epiglottis
vestibular ligaments/vocal ligaments extend between the thyroid cartilage and the arytenoid cartilage and lie within the superior folds called vestibular folds.
vestibular folds relatively inelastic, help prevent foreign objects from entering the glottis and protect the vocal cords
vocal cords inferior to the vestinular folds, guard the entrance to the glottis. Are highly elastic because the vocal ligaments consist of elastic tissue. Involved with the production of sound
laryngitis an infection or inflammation of the larynx
epiglottis develops rapidly after a bacterial infection of the throat. Severe case of larynx inflammation in which the swelling can close the glottis and cause suffocation
trachea windpipe; a tough, flexible tube with a diameter of about 2.5 cm and a length of about 11 cm.
submucosa a thick layer of connective tissue that surrounds the mucosa. Contains mucous glands that communicate with the epithelial surface through a number of secretory ducts
tracheal cartilages serve to stiffen the tracheal walls and protects the airways. They also prevent collapse or overexpansion as pressures change in the respiratory system
trachealis muscle band of smooth muscle that connect the ends of each tracheal cartilage. Contraction of the trachea alters the diameter of the trachea, changing the vessels resistance to airflow
right primary bronchi supplies the right lung. It is much larger in diameter than the left and descends toward the lung at a steeper angle
left primary bronchi supplies the left lung
carina an internal ridge that separates the 2 bronchi
hilus a groove that provides access for entry to pulmonary vessels and nerves. The entire array is firmly anchored in a meshwork of dense connective tissue
root root of the lung attaches itself to the mediastinum and fixes the positions of the major nerves, vessels, and lymphatic vessels
tuberculosis TB; results from an infection of the lungs by mycobacterium tuberculosis; other organs can be invaded as well. The bacterium can colonize the respiratory passageways, interstitial spaces, the aveoli, or all 3
what are the right lungs 3 lobes superior; middle; and inferior
what are the left lungd 2 lobes superior and inferior
brochial tree primary bronchi and their branches
secondary brochi formed by divided primary bronchus
tertiary bronchi formed from divided secondary bronchi
bronchopulmonary segment specific region of the lung that is supplied with air from the each of the tertiary bronchus
bronchitis inflamed bronchi and bronchitis
bronchioles each tertiary bronchus branches out several times within the bronchopulmonary segment, giving rise to multiple bronchioles
terminal bronchioles bronchioles that branch out further into the finest conducting branches called terminal bronchioles
bronchodilation the enlargement of the airway diameter (sympathetic activation)
bronchoconstriction reduction in the diameter of the airway (parasympathetic)
interlobular septa finest partitions that divide the lung into pulmonary lobules
pulmonary lobules supplied by branches pf the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, and respiratory passageways
respiratory bronchioles the thinnest and most delicate branches of the bronchial tree, the respiratory bronchicoles deliver branches air to the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs
alveolar ducts respiratory bronchioles are connected to individual alveoli and to multiple alveoli along regions called alveolar ducts
alveolar sacs common chambers connected to multiple individual alveoli.
alveolar macrophages patrol the epithelial surface phagocytizing any particulate matter that has eluded other respiratory defenses and reached the avelolar surfaces
septal cells type II cells, are scatrered among the spquamous cells.
surfactant produced by large septal cells. Its an oily secretion containing a mixture of phospholipids and proteins. It is secreted onto the aveolar surfaces where it forms a superficial coating over a thin layer of water
pneumonia develops from an infection or any other stilmulus that causes inflammation of the lobules of the lung
pulmonary embolism the blockage of a branch of a pulmonary artery will stop blood flow to a group of lobules or aveoli
pleural cavities in the thoracic cavity it has the shape of a broad cone. Its walls are the rib cage and the muscular diaphragm forms the floor
pleura a serous lining of each lung that occupies a pleural cavity
what are the 2 levels of the pleura? 1. parietal pleura 2. visceral pleura
pareital pleura covers the inner surface of the thoracic wall and extends over the diaphragm and mediastinum
viceral pleura covers the outer surfaces of the lungs extending into the fissures between the lobes
pleural fluid forms a moist, slippery coating that provides lubrication, thereby reducing friction between the parietal and visceral surfaces when you breathe
pleursy when normal coating of pleural fluid is unable to prevent friction between the opposing pleural surfaces, the result: pain and pleural inflammation
Created by: RD2