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A&P Chapter 2

Vocabulary from A&P Week 2

Proton subatomic particle with positive charge and 1 mass unit
Neutron subatomic particle with neutral charge and 1 mass unit
Electron subatomic particle with negative charge and low mass
Atomic number the number of protons in a nucleus
Mass number the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus
Nucleus the part of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
Electron cloud the part of an atom that contains electrons
3 isotopes of hydrogen hydrogen-1, deuterium, tritium
Principal elements of the human body carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, sulfur, iron, iodine, trace elements
Biological purpose of oxygen component of water, essential for respiration
Biological purpose of hydrogen component of most compounds in the human body
Biological purpose of nitrogen found in proteins, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds
Biological purpose of calcium found in bones and teeth, important for membrane function, nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and blood clotting
Biological purpose of phosphorus found in bones and teeth, nucleic acids, and high-energy compounds
Biological purpose of potassium important for proper membrane function, nerve impulses, and muscle contraction
Biological purpose of sodium important for blood volume, membrane function, nerve impulses, and muscle contraction
Biological purpose of chlorine important for blood volume, membrane function, and water absorption
Biological purpose of magnesium cofactor for many enzymes
Biological purpose of sulfur found in many proteins
Biological purpose of iron essential for oxygen transport and energy capture
Biological purpose of iodine component of thyroid hormones
Element an atom containing a specific number of protons
Isotope the specific version of an element based on its mass number
Atomic weight the average of the mass numbers of all isotopes of a particular element
Reactivity the affinity of an atom for capturing or donating electrons, based on the number of electrons in the valence shell
Valence shell the outermost electron shell of an atom
Three major types of chemical bonds Ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds
Cation a positively charged ion, created by the atom donating one or more electrons
Anion a negatively charged ion, created by the atom accepting one or more electrons
Ionic bond attraction between cations and anions
Covalent bond strong electron bond involving shared electrons
Hydrogen bond weak polar bond based on partial electrical attractions
Molecule two or more atoms joined by strong bonds
Compound two or more atoms of different elements joined by strong or weak bonds
Nonpolar covalent bond involves equal sharing of electrons; atoms involved have equal pull for electrons
Polar covalent bond involves unequal sharing of electrons; one of the atoms involved has a disproportionately strong pull on the electrons
Surface tension of water due to hydrogen bonds between water molecules
Molecular weight of a molecule the sum of the atomic weights of the component atoms
Reactant a material going into a chemical reaction
Product a material coming out of a chemical reaction
Metabolism all of the chemical reactions occurring within a cell
Energy the power to do work
Work a change in mass or distance
Kinetic energy energy of motion
Potential energy stored energy
Chemical energy potential energy stored in chemical bonds
Decomposition reaction catabolism, hydrolysis, oxidation; breaks chemical bonds
Synthesis reaction anabolism, condensation, reduction; forms chemical bonds
Exchange reaction involves decomposition, then synthesis
Reversible reaction a reaction that occurs simultaneously in both directions
Activation energy the amount of energy required to get a reaction started
Enzyme a protein catalyst that lowers the activation energy of reactions
Exergonic reaction produces more energy than it uses
Endergonic reaction uses more energy than it produces
Nutrient essential molecule obtained from food
Metabolite molecule made or broken down in the body
Solution a uniform mixture of two or more substances
Solvent the medium in which atoms, ions, or molecules of another substance are individually dispersed
Solute the substance dispersed in a solution
Important properties of water solubility, reactivity, high heat capacity, lubrication
Ionization dissociation; the process by which ions and polar compounds disperse in water
Hydration sphere the sphere of water molecules surrounding an ion or small polar molecule that keeps it in solution
Electrolyte an inorganic ion that conducts electricity in solution
Important electrolytes sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), calcium phosphate (CaPO4), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4)
Hydrophilic compound a polar compound that interacts with water
Hydrophobic compound a nonpolar compound that does not interact with water
Colloid a solution of very large organic molecules
Suspension a solution in which particles settle
Concentration the amount of solute in a solvent, measured in moles per liter or milligrams per milliliter
pH the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
neutral pH a balance of hydrogen and hydroxide ions; pure water has pH 7.0
pH of human blood ranges from 7.35 to 7.45
Acidic pH less than 7
Basic alkaline; pH greater than 7
Acid proton donor; a solute that adds hydrogen ions to a solution
Base proton acceptor; a solute that removes hydrogen ions from a solution
Buffer a weak acid or weak base that can accept or donate protons, keeping the pH of a solution constant
Salt a solute that dissociates into cations and anions other than hydrogen or hydroxide ions
Antacid a basic compound that neutralizes acid and forms a salt
Four types of organic molecules Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Carbohydrate a compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio
Monosaccharide simple sugar with 3 to 7 carbon atoms
Disaccharide two simple sugars anabolized by dehydration synthesis
Polysaccharide many monosaccharides anabolized by dehydration synthesis
Lipid fats, oils, waxes; made mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms
Fatty acid a long chain of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxylic acid group at one end
Saturated fatty acid a fatty acid with no double bonds between carbon atoms
Monounsaturated fatty acid a fatty acid with a single double bond between two carbon atoms
Polyunsaturated fatty acid a fatty acid with multiple double bonds between carbon atoms
Eicosanoid chemical messenger that coordinates local cellular activities
Leukotriene active in immune system
Prostaglandin a short-chain fatty acid that serves as a local hormone
Glyceride a fatty acid attached to a glycerol molecule
Triglyceride a glycerol molecule with three fatty acids attached
Functions of triglycerides energy source, insulation, protection
Steroid a compound consisting of four carbon-hydrogen rings with an assortment of functional groups attached
Types of steroids cholesterol, estrogens and testosterones, corticosteroids and calcitriol, bile salts
Phospholipid a diglyceride attached to a phosphate group
Glycolipid a diglyceride attached to a sugar
Function of phospholipids and glycolipids structural, serve as components of plasmalemma
Seven major protein functions support, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic regulation, coordination and control, defense
Amino acid structure a central carbon atom joined to an amine group, a hydrogen atom, a carboxylic acid group, and an R group
Peptide bond a bond formed between amino acids by dehydration synthesis; connects the amine group of one amino acid with the carboxylic acid group of another
Primary structure of a protein the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide
Secondary structure of a protein spirals or pleats formed by hydrogen bonds
Tertiary structure of a protein the unique shape that the secondary structure folds into
Quarternary structure of a protein final protein shape; created from several tertiary structures together
Fibrous proteins proteins that fold into structural sheets or strands
Globular proteins proteins that fold into soluble spheres with active functions; function is based on shape
Cofactor an ion or molecule that binds to an enzyme before substrates can bind
Coenzyme non-protein organic cofactor (vitamin)
Isozyme an enzyme that can catalyze the same reaction as a different enzyme
Denaturation the loss of shape and function a protein experiences when exposed to an unfavorable temperature or pH
Glycoprotein a large protein attached to a small carbohydrate; includes enzymes, antibodies, hormones, and mucus production
Proteoglycans a large polysaccharide plus a polypeptide; promotes viscosity
Nucleic acid a large organic molecule found in the nucleus which stores and processes information at the molecular level
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
Deoxyribonucleic acid determines inherited characteristics, directs protein synthesis, controls enzyme production, and controls metabolism
RNA ribonucleic acid
Ribonucleic acid controls intermediate steps in protein synthesis
Structure of a nucleic acid a pentose sugar attached to a phosphate group on one side, and a nitrogenous base on the other
Types of nucleotides purines, pyrimidines
Purines adenine and guanine; nitrogenous bases contain two connected rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms
Pyrimidines cytosine, thymine, and uracil; nitrogenous bases contain a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
Shape of DNA a twisting double helix formed by hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases
Types of RNA messenger, transfer, ribosomal
ATP adenosine triphosphate; composed of an adenine nucleotide joined to three phosphate groups with a high amount of chemical energy
Phosphorylation the reaction that adds a high-energy phosphate group to a molecule
Metabolic turnover recycling and renewing chemical components to allow the cell to grow, change, and adapt to new conditions and activities
Created by: ekolmus