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Age of Unification

what was the crimean war? Russia wants to extend control over ottoman provinces walachia and moldavia --> ottomans, britain, france, piedmont all declare war
what were the 2 disputes that led to crimean war russia's protection over orthodox christians in OE, russia wants to control 2 ottoman provinces
what were the terms of the treaty of paris? russia surrenders territory, black sea control, protectorship of orthodox christians
significance of crimean war russia not a great power anymore, shattered Concert of Europe, reform in ottoman empire
what was tanzimat? 3 goals period of reform in ottoman empire to liberalize economy, end tax farming, and get rid of corruption
what was the hatti i humayun spelled out equal military + education rights of nonmuslims in OE
why was reform difficult in the OE? independent rulers, power struggles, regional nationalism
underlying theme of reform in OE reduce muslim authority in government
who was giussepi mazzini? famous mid 19th century Italian nationalists + romantic republican
who was garibaldi? romantic republican who captured S Italy but accepted piedmont leadership for sake of unification
who was camilo cavour liberal prime minister of piedmont who unified italy
What were cavour's policies? strong monarchy, material and economic progress unites italians, need french help
how did cavour use war to unite italy helped french in crimean war, drove austria from N italy with french help
3 problems that italy faced after unification economic differences between urban north and rural South, resentment from clergy/republicans, corruption in gov
why was german unification single most important late 1800s poltiical development transformed balance of power in europe
what was the german confederation loose federation of 39 states whose reps met in frankfurt
why did the prospect of unification seem remote in 1850s states trading, prussia given up, austria opposed unification, liberal weak
who was otto von bismarck and what did he believe conservative prussian prime minister who wanted german unification + strong const monarchy and army, anti-liberal
why did bismarck embrace nationalism to allow conservatives to defeat liberals
bismarks vision of united germany german states united but excludes austria
what was the danish war, and significance prussia + austria take back schleswig and holstein provinces from denmarck, which increases bismarck's power
result of austro prussian war/treaty of prague italy gets venetia, austrians excluded form german affairs and prussia is most powerful german state
what were the provisions of the north german confederation each state has a local gov, federal military, president, bicameral legislature of bundesrat and reichstag
what was the reichstag and how much power did it have lower leglislative house that couldnt make laws and was responsible to monarch
how did bismarck crush prussian liberals made monarch + army the most popular institution s in the country
why did bismarck want the franco prussian war to complete unification of N and S Germany
what happened to spainish crown in 1868? how did france react isabella replaced with Hohenzollern Prince leopold, and france objects
why did france later declare war on prussia prussia insulted them and napolean III thought a victory would renew support for empire
outcome of franco prussian war/hall of mirrors at versailles german empire delcared with states ruled by princes all under emperor william, germany got french land and &
what were the effects of german unification on europe strong new state in central europe, hurt liberalism, austria + france weakeened and need reform
what did france change to and what did austria change france went to republicanism, and austrians make peace with magyars
describe france during Napolean III early rule (1850s) authoritarian rule where he controlled legislature and press, supported by army and church, protected property
what was france like after 1860 Napoleon more liberal and failing at foreign policy + domestic popularity
what happened at battle of sedan end of second empire bc napolean captured and paris declared republic
what was the paris commune paris's separate gov, made of different kinds of radicals and socialists, wanted independent democrative enclaves
what was the 3rd republic simple republic with chamber of deputies elected by universal male suffrage, senate, and elected president
what was the dreyfus affair french captain dreyfus convicted of selling info to germans, conservatives think he's guily and liberal support him
what was the significance of the affair radicals + republicans + socialists ally and conservatives weakened
how was the habsurg empire different from majority of europe other places were liberal + insustrial but habsurbg was absolute, agrarian
what signaled the need for reform loss of italy
what was the february patent? set up new gov in austria with reichsrat, or bicameral imperial parliament that did not hold much power
what was the ausgliech comromise of 1867 where austria and hungary united into dual monarchy
how did other nationalities in austria feel about the magyar indepenedence opposed it because allowed austrians + magyars to dominate
what did the czechs of bohemia want trialist triple monarchy
what became the most important factor in defining a nation language
what types of people dominated nationalist groups intellectuals, middle class
how did unrest of nationalities create problems? nationals want to form states with nationals outside of empire --> disrupts foreign policy
what showed need for russian reform defeat in crimean war + cultural gap from rest of europe
what was a major serfdom reform of alexander II and what were the problems abolition of serfdom, but serfs did not have titles to land and were in debt
how did alexander reform the military less brutal, period of service lowered + relaxed discipline
what were the gov reforms and judicial reforms village commune replace feudal system and more organized, fairer judicial system, zemstovs councils, less corrupt
what happened in poland? rebellion put down, serfs emancipated, russian gov imposed on poland and showed tsar not a true reformer
what is populism radical revolution adopted by russian intellectuals based on life of peasants
what did killing of tsar alexander show revolutionaries were violent + determined
policies of alexander III repressive, supported censorship, bureaucracy + secret police
how was great britain different from the continental nations did not have to create new liberal institutions
why did many believe in expanding the electorate prosperity + social responsibility of working class
what was disraeli's Second Reform Bill, reason for it expanded electorate so working class was included, to gain support for conservative party
what were disraeli's views conservative, legistlation solves social problems, focus on foreign power, did not support irish home rule
what was gladstone liberal, free trade solves social problems, focus on domestic, supported irish home rule
how was gladstone's ministry classic liberal? 4 ways civil service uses ability, meritocracy, religious requirements gone, better education
what was the education act of 1870 gov assumed responsibility of running elementary schools
what 3 reforms were made by disraeli public health act, artisan dwelling act, protection to trade unions
what was home rule? irish control of local gov
what 2 concessions did gladstone give to irish in 1860s and 70s disestablished anglican church to catholics dont have to pay taxes, land act to aid irish tenant farmers
how did ireland finally achieve home rule in 1903 conservatives sponser land act that makes ireland a country of small farms but dont really have independence until after WWI
significance of irish question -2 things problems for britain, liberal party split
Created by: mhaq.16