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Bio-Medical Ethics_Unit 1

autonomy "mental state," clear-headed understanding of a situation or circumstance. Self-rule, capacity for mature, uncoerced and therefore mentally competent decision-making; NOT the same as a liberty or a right to choose this or that specific action
justice "major moral principle," fairness or treating all equal; justice governs policy decisions as well as individual patient-care situations, whole systems of health care delivery, etc.(ex:if we delivery good care to only those patients who are pleasant to us)
moral agency capability of discerning (have or showing good judgement) right and wrong
law / morality relationships law and morality are both theoretically and actually distinct. (Therefore, always distinguish between legal and moral rights)
beneficence doing well by someone; well-meaning intent and behavior.
natural law A source of law that arises out of human nature itself,innate,inborn, (natural) and which determines species characteristics, like moral agency or capacity to understand and think
Mill's Harm Principle a person's liberty is justifiably restricted to prevent harm to others caused by that person.
Mill's Greatest Happiness Principle an action is right or wrong depending on whether the effects promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
Principle of Paternalism The controversial "principle of paternalism" : a person's liberty may be rightfully curtailed (restricted) to prevent harm to that same person. (Mill disagrees, opposite to Mill's defense)
J.S. (John Stuart) Mill British Ethicist-Founder of Utilitarianism "Consequentialist" Mill defended BOTH liberty and liberty-limiting principles.
Utilitarianism the moral theory which holds that actions are good or bad depending on their consequences
personhood that moral status which is worthy of highest respect, and possessive of rights
paternalism suppressing (forcibly put to an end) an individual's autonomy for that person's own sake
law natural law: comes from the natural rights of the species man case law: is judge-made law written in court decisions statutory law: is federal (national), state or county legislation
speciesism a moral theory which only applies to humans (Engelhardt is a "non-speciesist")
virtue a habit of doing good. implies a character "trait", an internal disposition, habitually to seek moral perfection. Quality of "character" and NOT particular "actions".
H.T. Englehardt 20th century bioethicist. "Non-Speciesist" and extends personhood potentially much farther. Englehardt denies any personhood what-so-ever to the fetus, current American law denies personhood to the fetus so that "abortion" can be legal.
Example: Mill's Harm Principle in medical,we may quarantine a patient w/ an infectious disease in order to keep the infection from spreading. This patient is treated for his ailment but looses considerable liberties for the protection of others.
Example: Law a "law" permitting the killing of all red-haired people, an immoral civil law.
Example: Morality a "moral" right not to be spat upon, a good thing not necessarily legally dictated.
Morality and The Law: An Ethical Utopia "fictional" (Ideal world of Full Legal and Ethical Agreement). Working Principles of Justice, Beneficence, and Respect for Autonomy: "ALL civil laws are ethically right"
Morality and The Law: The Actual World (At least some legal and ethical disagreement). Working Principles of Justice, Beneficence, and Respect for Autonomy: "MOST civil laws are ethically right" (controversy)
Hippocratic Oath an oath taken by many physicians upon receipt of their medical degrees. (principle of autonomy - "Doctor/Patient confidentiality"
Immanuel Kant (German, late 18th century ) "Speciesist" His controversial ethical theories centered around the "Categorical Imperative," stated in at least two different ways.
Sigman "A physician's ETHICAL DILEMMA"(Disclosure of Diagnosis to Children & Adolescents when Parents Object) Author's widely-accepted, beginning assumptions:parents are regarded as moral agents for their children(they are non-competent or autonomous bc of age)
Edmund Pellegrino "The Virtuous Physician" "the good of the patient" Three tiered system of ethical practice: observance of the civil law of the land, observance of rights & fulfillment of duties and obligations(middle-level) , and the practice of virtue.
Mark Siegler "Confidentiality in Medicine-A Decrepit Concept" Siegler warns against wanton (malicious attacks), often inadvertent, but avoidable exchanges of confidential info that occur frequently in hospital rooms, elevators, cafeterias,doctors' offices,parties,etc.
David Thomasma "Telling the truth to the Patients" Reasonings telling truth: it is a "right" to be told the truth bc respect for person demands it,the truth is a "utility" bc persons need to make informed judgements about their actions,& it is virtuous "kindness"
Leon Kass "The Wisdom of Repugnance" ("the programmed reproduction of man will, in fact, dehumanize him") Kass worries about making babies without "sex". Kass reminds his readers that we find "asexual reproduction" ONLY in the lowest forms of life:bacteria,algae...
veracity "truth-telling"
statement of "fact" objectively verifiable by scientific, "look and see" means.
statement of an "opinion" "evaluation" of actions and is subject to our agreement or disagreement. It is NOT a stand-alone foundation concept, even though it may "make-use" of one.
Created by: ShannonLowe