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CCDM: Anthrax

Control of Communicable Diseases in Man: Anthrax

QuestionAnswer
What nicknames exist for anthrax? Woolsorters Disease & Ragpicker Disease
What acute bacterial disease usually affect the skin, but may rarely involve the oropharynx, mediastinum or intestinal tract? Anthrax
What are the symptoms for cutaneous anthrax? Itching of exposed skin first, followed by lesions that become papular, then vesicular and in 2-6 days developes into depressed black eschar.
True or false? Pain is usual when concerning anthrax, and is not due to edema or secondary infection. False. Pain is unusual and if present, is due to secondary infection.
What are the most common sites for anthrax infections? Hands, forearms, and head
Anthrax has been confused with what disease? Human Orf
Untreated anthrax can cause the fatality rate of ____ and ____% ? 5 and 20
Initial symptoms of inhalation anthrax are mild and nonspecific and may include? Fever, malasia and miod cough or chest pain.
Acute symptoms of inhalation anthrax include? Respiratory distress, X-ray evidence of mediastinal widening.
Fever and shock follow inhalation anthrax in ___ to ___ days, with death shortly thereafter. 3 to 5 days
Which type of anthrax is more rare, cutaneous, inhalation, or intestinal? Intestinal
Anthrax cultures leave what color stain? Polychrome methylene (M'Fadyean)blue
What is the causative agent for anthrax? Bacillus anthracis
What are the characteristics of of bacillus anthracis? Gram-positive, encapsulated, spore forming, nonmotile rod
True or false? The anthrax spores of B. anthracis are the infectious agent. True
True or false? Vegetative B. anthracis frequently establishes disease. False! B. anthracis rarely establishes disease.
True or false? Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores. True
Anthrax primarily effects poeple in what type cultures and occupations? "1. People who work with animal hides & hair *like wool* (mainly goats) 2. People who work with bone and bone products. 3. Vegatarians, agriculture, wild life workers who handle infected animals.
True or false? Person to person transmission is rare. True
Articles of soil contaminated with anthrax may stay contaminated for how long? Several years
Describe anthrax susceptibility info. Some evidence of inapparent (no signs or symptoms) infection amoung people in fequent contact with the infectious agent; second attacks can occur, but reports are rare.
What some preventive measures for anthrax? 1. Immunize 2. Educate 3.Control Dust
What is the treatment for cutaneous anthrax? Penicillin for 5-7 days. Tetracyclines, erythromycin and chloramphenicol are also effective
What does the US military reccomend for the treatment of inhalation anthrax? parenteral ciprofloxacin or doxycycline (duration of treatment is not defined)
Anyone who receives a threat about the dissemination of anthrax should notify who? Their local criminal investigative authority (for US call FBI).
True or Flase? if someone has been exposed to anthrax they should be quarantined to prevent spreading of the disease. False! Anthrax is not contagious.
what is the incubation period for anthrax? 1 to 7 days, although incubation periods up to 60 days are possible. in the russian outbreak incubation periods lasted 43 days.
Animals that have been treated for anthrax should not be used as food until how long after treatment? A few months
Antibiotherapy sterilizes an anthrax skin lesion in how many hours? 24
What are acceptable methods of destruction for anthrax spores? Steam sterilization, autoclaving or burning
Postexposure of immunization consist of ___ injections, starting as soon as possible after exposure and at ___ to ___ weeks after exposure. 3 injections & 2 to 4 weeks after exposure
The vaccine has not been evaluated for safety and efficacy in children under the age of ___ or in adults over the age of ___ or older. under the age of 18 and 60 or older.
What is the proper PPE for anthrax? Splash protection, gloves and full face respirator with high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filter (level C) or self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)(Level B)
After, and only after soap and water decontamination what bleach to water ratio should be used to treat gross contamination and how long is the rinsing time afterwards? 1:10 and 10 to 15 minutes
All clothing and personal affects should be placed in a plastic bag and labeled how? With the owner's name, contact telephone number and inventory of contents.
Created by: RabbittDK10