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Health Assess. Ch.12

Lymphatic System

What color is lymph fluid? Clear
What is lymph fluid composed of? Mainly water and small amounts of protein, mostly albumin.
What is fluid in the interstitial space absorbed by? The lymph system
Where is the fluid carried to throughout the body? The lymph nodes
The fluid flow is slow as to... allow the lymphocytes to ingest and destroy.
Where do the ducts from the lymph nodes empty into? The subclavian veins
Where do the right lymphatic ducts drain fluid from? The right side of the head and neck, right arm, and right chest into the right subclavian vein.
Which duct drains the rest of the body into the left subclavian vein? The thoracic duct
What is the purpose of the lymphatic system? To provide immunity for the body.
How does the flow of lymph fluid occur? Fluid is left in the interstitial spaces and is reabsorbed by the lymph system and carried to lymph nodes.
Name the 2 types of lymphocytes. B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.
What do the B lymphocytes produce? Specific antibodies (immunoblobulins) to provide humoral immunity.
Name the B lymphocyte immunoglobulins. IgA, IgD (allergic reaction), IgE, IgG, and IgM.
What do the immunoglobulins do? Neutralize bacterial toxins, viruses, phagocytizing bacteria, and activating the inflammatory response.
What do the T lymphocytes provide? Cellular immunity, including cytotoxic, helper, and suppressor T cells.
What are the functions of T lymphocytes? To kill cells infected by viruses, including tumors and transplant tissue, activate inflammatory response, and stimulate production of more B and T lymphocytes.
Tiny oval clumps of lyphatic tissue, usually located in groups along blood vessels. Lymph nodes
Nodes located in subcutaneous connective tissue. Accessible and become enlarged and tender, providing early signs of inflammation. Superficial nodes
Nodes beneath the fascia of muscles or within various body cavities. Not accessible to inspection or palpation. Deep nodes
Where can lymph nodes be found? Head, neck, axilla, breast, arm, and groin.
H-Preauricular node Located in front of tragus of external ear. Receives drainage from scalp, external auditory canal, forehead or upper facial features, & lateral portion of eyelids.
H-Postauricular node (mastoid) Located behind ear on mastoid process. Receives drainage from parietal region of scalp, external auditory canal.
H-Occipital node Located midway b/w external occipital protuberance and mastoid process. Receives drainage from the parietal region of scalp.
H-Partoid node Located near the jaw angle. Receives drainage from the eyelids, frontotemporal skin, external auditory meatus, and tympanic cavity.
H-Retropharyngeal node (tonsillar) Located at angle of mandible. Receives drainage from tolsils, posterior palate, thyroid, and floor of mouth.
H-Submandibular node Located halfway b/w angle and tip of mandible. Receives drainage from the tongue, submaxillary glands, mucosa of lips and mouth.
H-Submental node Located in the modline behind tip of mandible. Receives drainage from the tongue, mucosa of lips and mouth, and the floor of the mouth.
N-Anterior cervical chain Located superficial to sternoceidomastoid muscle. Receives drainage from the skin of neck and ear.
N-Posterior cervical chain Located along the anterior edge to trapezius muscle in the posterior triangle. Receives drainage from the posterior scalp, thyroid, and posterior skin of neck.
N-Deep cervical chain Located under sternocleidomastoid muscle; includes 4 separate chains extending over larynx, thyroid gland, and trachea. Receives drainage from the larynx, thyroid, trachea, ear, and upper part of the esophagus.
N-Supraclavicular Located deep in the angle formed by sternocleidomastoid muscle and clavicle. Receives drainage from the upper abdomen, lungs, breast, and arm.
A-Anterior (pectoral) Located along lateral border of pectoral muscle. Receives drainage from the breast.
A-Lateral (brachial) Located along the upper suface of the arm. Receives drainage from the breast.
A-Posterior (subscapular) Located along the border of the scapula. Receives drainage from the breast.
A-Central Located high and deep into the axilla. Receives drainage from the breast.
A-Subclavian (apical) Located below the midclavical. Receives drainage from the breast.
B-Mammary (Rotter's nodes or interpectoral) Located superior to central breast. Receives drainage from the superior breast.
B-Internal mammary Located medial to breast and adjacent to sternal border. Receives drainage from the medial breast.
B-External mammary Located lateral to breast. Receives drainage from the lateral and posterior breast.
Arm-Epitrochlear Located in the depression above and posterior to medial condyle of humerus. Receives drainage from the ulnar surface of the forearm, fourth and fifth finger.
G-Superior and inferior superficial inguinal Located over inguinal canal deep in groin. Receives drainage from te upper and lower leg, vulva and lower third of vagina drain into inguinal nodes, penis and scrotal surface, and the nodes of the testes drain into the abdomen.
Superficial lymph nodes should not be... palpable (it's abnormal if palpable and tender)
Excessive accumulation of fluid within the interstitial space. Edema
Redness of the skin. Erythema
Age-related variations Infants-MMR recordsChildren-immunization, tonsilsAdolescents-immunizationsCollege students-meningitisOlder adults-specs. on tetnus, flu vaccines, if over 65, more succeptible to pneumonia, gardasil vaccine.
Created by: shanhaup
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