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Skeleton

TermDefinition
Long Bones Arms and Legs
Diaphysis long shaft
Epiphysis two ends of the long bone
Medullary Canal cavity in the Diaphysis
Yellow Marrow storage area for fat cell, forms leukocytes
Leukocytes white blood cells
Endosteum membrane that lines the Medullary Canal and keep yellow marrow intact
Red Marrow found in the vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and cranium. Produce red blood cells and platelettes
Erithrocyes red blood cells
thrombocytes platelettes
Periosteum tough outer membrane containing blood vessels, lymph vessels, and osteoblasts (special cells that form new bone tissue)
Flat Bones in your skull, ribs, and sternum
irregular Bones spinal column and pelvis
Short bones in your wrist and ankle
Axial Skeleton forms the main trunk of the body and is composed of the skull, spinal column, ribs, and breastbone.
Skull composed of the cranial and facial bones
Cranium spherical structure that surrounds and protects the brain
Frontal 1- Forehead
Parietal 2- roof to the side of your head
Temporal 2- sides of the head, house the ears
Occipital 1- base of skull in the back
Ethmoid 1- between the eyes, forms part of the nasal septum
Sphenoid 1- resembles a bat behind the eyes
Fontanels spaces "soft spots" that allow for the enlargement of the skull as the brain grows. Made of a membrane and cartilage that turn into bone at 18 months of age.
Sutures areas where the cranial bones have joined together
Sinuses air spaces in the bones of the skull that act as resonating chambers for the voice. They are lined with mucous membranes
Foramina openings in the bone that allow nerves and blood vessels to enter or leave the bone
Facial Bones 14
Mandible 1- lower jaw, only movable bone in your face
Maxilla 2- Upper jaw
Zygomatic 2- cheek
Lacrimal 2- inter aspect of the eyes
Nasal 5- Nose
Palatine 2- hard palate of the mouth
Spinal Column provides support for head and attachment for the ribs
Vertabrae 26- protect the spinal chord and provide support for the head and trunk
Intervertabral Disk pads of cartilage tissue seperate the vertabrae, act as shock absorbers and permit bending and twisting movements of the vertebral column
Cervical 7- Neck (C1-C7)
Atlas first cervical (C1) allows you to nod your head
Axis second cervial (C2) allow to turn head left and right
Throacic 12- chest
Lumbar 5- waist
Sacrum 1- back of pelvic girdle (helps form hips)
Coccyx 1- Tailbone
Ribs 12 pairs (24) "costae" attach to the thoracic vertebrae on the ventral surface of the body, also prtect heart and lungs
True Ribs first seven pairs (14) attach directly to the sternum on the front of the body
False Ribs the next five pairs of ribs (10) the first three pairs attach to the cartilage of the rib above
Floating Ribs part of false ribs- last 2 of the 5 pairs of false ribs, have no attachment on the front of the bey. They have attachemnt of the dorsal surface on the throacic spinal region
Sternum "breastbone" ribs attached with costal cartilage to form a "cage" that protects the heart and lungs
Manubrium upper region of sternum- two collar bones are attached here by ligaments
Gladiolus body of the sternum- middle
Xiphoid Process a small peice of cartilage at the bottom of the sternum, commonly broken in CPR
Appendicular Skeleton Forms the extremities (arms and legs)
Clavicles 2- collar bones (right and left)
Scapulas 2- shoulder blades, provide for the attachment of the upper arm bones
Humerus 1-upper arm bone
Radius 1- lower arm of the thumb side that rotates around the ulna to allow the hand to turn freely
Ulna 1- larger bone of the lower arm with a projection called the olecranon process that helps form the elbow
Carpals 8- wrist
Metacarpals 5- palm of hand (front and back)
Phalanges 14- fingers (3 on each finger, and two on each thumb)
Pelvic Girdle 2 sockets
Os Coxae 2- hip bones, join with the sacrum on the dorsal part of the body
Symphysis Pubis os coxae join together at this joint
Acetabula the pelvic girdle contains two recessed areas or sockets, provide for the attachment of the femur
Obturator Foramen opening between ischium and pubis, allows for the passage of nerves and blood vessels to and from the leg
Femur 1- thigh bone, strongest bone in the body
Patella 1- knee cap
Tibia 1- the larger bone of the lower leg commonly called the shin bone
Fibula 1- smaller bone of the lower leg
Tarsals 7- ankle
Metatarsals 5- instep of the foot
Phalanges (foot) 14- toes (two in the big toe and three for the rest of the toes)
Calcaneous the heel
Joint where two or more bones join together
Ligaments connective tissue bands that help hold bones together at joints (bone to bone)
Tendon holds muscle to bone through fibrous tissue
Articular Cartilage smooth, slippary cap that covers the joint surface. shock absorber and helps prevent friction between parts
Articular Capsule encloses articular surfaces of the bones
Synovial Membrane lines the articular capsule
Synovial Fluid lubricating substance in the synovial cavity
Bursa Sac fluid filled sac surrounding joints
Created by: 152670