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SPC APII Lect Immune

What are the two major types of immunity? Innate (non-specific) Defense & Adaptive (specific) Immunity
Explain Innate (non-specific) Defense Defenses present @ birth; always present, avail., & fast; general similar action against all microbes; no memory; two lines of defense - 1 & 2
Explain Adaptive (specific) Immunity Defenses develop over time based upon exposure; specific microbe recognition & response due to 'memory'; involves Lymphocytes(B&T cells); AKA the 3rd line of defense
Define Antigen Anything foreign(not-self), or perceived as foreign (bacteria, virus, toxin, transplanted or cancer cells)
Define Antibody Protein produced in response to a specific antigen
Define Pathogen Disease causing antigen
Define Immunity Ability to prevent damage or disease
Define Susceptibility Vulnerability; lack of immunity(resistance)
Define Resistance Ability to ward off disease through body defenses
What are the lines of defense? 1:Skin/mucus membranes; 2:Inflammatory response, fever, antimicrobial proteins, NK cells; 3: Immune Response
What cells are involved in the 1st line of defense? What type of immunity is this? Neutrophils 1st, Macrophages 2nd. Non-specific(innate)Defense
What cells are involved in the 2nd line of defense? What type of immunity is this?` Basophils, Eosinophils. Non-specific(innate)Defense
What cells are involved in the 3rd line of defense? What type of immunity is this? T-cells, B-cells. Specific(adaptive)Immunity
What are the body's 2 mechanical barriers of defense to damage/disease? Epidermis & mucus membranes
What are the body's 9 chemical barriers of defense to damage/disease? Sebaceous glands, perspiration, lysozyme, hyaluronic acid, gastric juice, vaginal secretions, vomiting, urination, defecation
What are the 3 general categories/types of antimicrobial proteins? Transferrins, Interferon, Complement
Explain Transferrin proteins Transport proteins that bind to iron; transported to liver for storage; released later as needed
Explain Interferon proteins Interferres with viruses; prod. by lymphocytes, macrophages, & fibroblasts infected by virus; binds to uninfected cells & inhibits viral replication; important defense against infect. by many diff. viruses
Explain Complement proteins Group of 20+ proteins found in plasma; normally inactive
What immune functions do Complement proteins enhance when activated? Inflammation, chemotaxis, opsonization -> phagocytosis, cytolysis
What happens when Inflammation occurs? Mast cells, basophils, platelets secrete histamine which increases permeability of blood capillaries thus incr. emigration; incr. vaso-D of arterioles thus incr. blood flow to the swelling site
What happens when Chemotaxis occurs? Phagocytes move to injury site
What happens when Opsonization occurs? =coating the membrane of the pathogen; increase the stickiness for WBC attachment; thus enhancing phagocytosis
What happens when Cytolysis occurs? Cytotoxic killer Tcells bind to body cells infect. w/ spec. microbe; release complement-like protien Perforin; which perforates membrane of pathogen; ECF then enters causing rupture of pathogen
What type of cell are Natural Killer (NK) cells ? Lymphocytes
How do NK cells kill? Direct contact + cause apoptosis (programmed cell death); release Perforin
What is the action of Perforin? Perforates pathogen's membrane, ECF enters, pathogen ruptures
Name the 2 major types of phagocytes? Neutrophils & Macrophages
What are the 5 mechanisms of phagocytosis? Chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, & killing
What is inflammation ? Response to tissue damage caused by invasion or injury
What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation? Red(rubor), heat(calor), swelling(tumor), pain(dolor)
What is the function of inflammation? Dispose microbes, toxins, foreign @ injury site; prevent spread to other areas; prepare site for tissue repair
What are the 3 stages of inflammation? Vasodilation, phagocytic emigration, tissue repair
What is fever? Body temp reset by hypothalamus
What causes fever? Infection, inflammation & disease; toxins cause macrophages to release fever-inducing chemicals
What are the affects of fever? Increases the effects of Interferons; inhibits some microbe growth by causing liver/spleen to hoard zinc & iron; speeds up repair
Where do B cells & T cells form & mature? B cells: form & mature in RBM; differentiate into plasma cells that secrete antibodies. T cells: form in RBM, mature (become immunocompetent) in Thymus gland
What are CD4 & CD8? Antigen receptors (in relation to T cells)
Created by: vgflgirl



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