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Stack #147903

human anatomy chp 5/bones

The central layer of spongy, porous, bony tissue between the hard outer and inner bone layers of the cranium;found in flat bones diploe
what is the most abundant mineral in the body of which 98% is deposited in the bones? calcium
What are the 3 blood cell types made by red marrow? RBC (red blood cell);WBC (white blood cell);platelets
How do bones function as levers? bones change the direction and magnitude of movement generated by skeletal muscles
What consists of the bones of the skull,vertebral column,ribs,and sternum axial skeleton
what consists of bones of the limbs & associated bones connecting to shoulders and pelvis appendicular skeleton
what 4 types of tissue are contained in the bones of the skeleton? osseous tissue,connective tissue,smooth muscle tissue,neural tissue
Does osseous tissue (bone) have specialized cells and extracellular matrix? Yes.It is part of C.T.
What inorganic compounds give bone compressional strength? calcium carbonate,ions such as sodium,magnesium,and fluoride
What accounts for almost 2/3 of weight of bone within the matrix? calcium phosphate
In bone,what provides an organic framework for the formation of crystal minerals? collagen fibers
What does calcium phosphate interact with to form hydroxyapatite? calcium hydroxide
What crystals form plates alongside collagen fibers? Hydroxyapatite
In bone,what can tolerate streching,twisting,bending but when compressed,bends out of the way collagen fibers
In bone, what is very strong but inflexible and likely to shatter when exposed to bending,twisting,or sudden impacts? Ca Phosphate crystals
What are the 4 types of cells in bone? Osteoprogenitor cells,Osteocytes,Osteoblast,Osteoclast
What directs both the release of Ca from the bone to blood and the calcium deposits in matrix Osteocytes
What do Osteocytes (mature bone cells) maintain and moniter in the usrrounding matrix? protein and mineral content which are continually recycled
Osteocytes in lacunae are sandwiched between what? layers of calcified matrix (lamellae)
What interconnects lacuna to lacuna and provides a route of diffusion for nutrients and waste products? canaliculi (radiates from lacuna toward free surfaces and adjacent blood vessels)
Which cells are cuboidal, secrete organic compounds of the bone matrix (Osteoid),responsible for new bone production,and can be found on the inner or outer surfaces of bone? Osteoblasts
Wahat does the Osteoblast become if it is surrounded by the matrix? differntiates into Osteocytes (mature bone cells)
What is the name of the mesenchymal cells that divide to produce daughter cells that differentiates into Osteoblasts and are found in inner layer of periosteoum and endosteum lining in marrow cavity? Osteoprogenitor cells
What giant cells with 50 or more nuclei dissolves the bony matrix to release the minerals and amino acids? Osteoclasts
What erosion process increases Ca and Phosphates in body fluids? Osteolysis
What happens when Osteoclasts remove Ca salts faster than Osteoblast deposits them? brittle,weak bones
What happens when Osteoblasts deposit and build more bone matrix? bones become stronger and massive
What forms the walls of the bone? Compact,dense bone
What internal layer surrounds the loose connective tissue of red marrow,WBC,and yellow marrow (adipocytes) spongy bone
What is the basic functional unit of mature Compact Bone? Osteon or Haversian system
Within the compact bone, where is the blood vessels that supply the osteon? Central canal or Haversian Canal
What other passageway runs perpendicular to the surface and supplies blood to osteons deeper in the osteon as well as interior marrow cavity Perforating canals or canals of Volkmann
What forms a series of concentric rings around the central canal (like a bull's eye)? Concentric Lamallae
What strengthens the osteon in whole? Coolagen fobers and variations of directions of other lamallae
Which lamallae fills in the spaces between the osteon in compact bone? Interstitial Lamallae
Which lamallae could have been produced during the growth of the bone or rep the recycled osteon due to osteoclasts Interstitial lamallae
Which lamallae occurs at the external and internal surfaces of the bone? Circumferential lamallae
Name 3 primary differences of spongy bone and C.B. spongy bone has trabeculae (parallel lamellae that form struts); no osteons(mature C.B.) in spongy bone; nutrients reach osteocytes by diffusion in canaliculi that open to surface of trabeculae
What reduces the weight of the skeleton and allows muscles to easily move the bones? Spongy bone
Where is spongy bone found? Wherever bones are not stressed heavily or where stress comes from many directions
What covers the superficial layer of CB o bone surfaces? Periosteum
Where is periosteum not found on the external bone? Within a joint where the edges of 2 bones contact one another
In some joints what connects the two bones? collagen fibers or a block of cartilage
What covers the ends of mobile fluid filled joints? hyaline articular cartilage
Where is CB thickest? where stress arrive from a limited range of directions
Name 4 FX of Periosteum 1) isolate/protect bone from surrounding tissue 2) provides route for circulatory & nerves 3) participates in bone growth/repair 4) attaches bone to fascia
Name where you won't find periosteum? sesamoid bone (patella);where tendon,ligaments, & joint capsules attach; or articular cartilage
What happens to periosteum when it is near joints or ligaments? it becomes continuous or interwoven with the tendon or ligament
What does the inner cellular layer of periosteum contain? osteoprogenitor cells but only visible if bone is growing/repairing
What do you call collagen fibers that become bone tissue from tendons and superficial periosteum? perforating fibers or sharpey's fibers
What is found in the inner layer of endosteum inside the marrow? osteoprogenitor cells,osteoblasts,osteoclasts
Besides the bone marrow,where else is the endosteum found? trabeculae of spongy bone,inner surfaces of central canal & perforating canals
Since the endosteum is a simple incomplete epithelial layer,what can happen? bone matrix is sometimes exposed
What is the diff between calcification and ossification in na tissue? any tissue can be calcified (deposited with Ca salts) but only ossification turns tissue into bone
How does intramembranous ossification happen? Mesenchymal cells become osteoblasts within embroyonic or fibrous CT;occurs in deeper layers of dermis;resulting bones are "dermal bones"
Name examples of dermal bones (membrane bones)ossified from Intramembranous tissue frontal & pareital bones of skull (roofing bones);mandible;clavicle; sesamoid bones (patella)form within tendon
Can membrane bones develop in other CT subject to chronic mechanical stress? YES. hETEROTROPIC BONES DEVELOP in ABNORMAL locations due to a disorder in Ca metabolism or excretion.
In bone growth do osteoblasts require oxygen and nutrients? Yes.As spicules interconnect,BV are trapped within the bone
How does Endochondral Ossification begin? formation of hyaline cartilagemodel;6 week old embroyo developes femur or humerus entirely of cartilage
In Endrochondral Ossification,why do the chondrocyes die? chondrocytes near center of shaft increase and matrix begins to calcify (Ca crystals deposited into tissue);chondrocytes are deprived of nutirents and die.
In endochondral ossification,who differentiates to become Osteoblasts? perichondrium (outer layer of cartilage) become osteoblasts....Periosteum now surrounds the developing bone.
What does the inner osteogenic layer of newly periosteum produce? thin layer of bone around shaft of cartilage (bone collar)
How do capallaries and Osteoblasts migrate into the heart of the cartilage? periosteum increases and directs osteoblasts/capallaries since there is empty space from the disintegrating chondrocytes
How is the bone marrow produced in Endochondral Ossif? Newly formed spongy bone of diaphysis enlarges.Osteoclasts beak down center protion to make the marrow cavity
Which area of the cartilage is ossified into bone? the metaphysis in between the diaphysis (shaft) and the epiphysis (ends)
Which area of cartilage is continually making cartilage while bone is produced in the metaphysis? the epiphysis (ends)
What separates the cartilage and newly ossified region in the metaphysis? Epiphyseal cartilage or plate is a narrow cartilagenous region.At maturity Epiphyseal cartilage will disappear and become a faint Epiphyseal line.
How is the developing bone increase in length? Center of Epiphysis begins to calcify.Capillaries and osteoblasts move into secondary ossification centers
How does the Epiphyseal cartilage get narrower and eventually disappears? at bone maturity,the rate of epiphyseal cartilage decreases but osteoblasts speed up
How does bone increase in diameter or width? appositional growth at outer surface as osteoprogenitor cells of inner periosteum become osteoblasts;bone matrix added to surface
Can BV and collagen fibers of periosteum become trapped within matrix during appositional growth? Yes.
Created by: mich826