Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Neural - breathing

Week 1 - neural control of breathing

What are the three respiratory centres in the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata and pons? Ventral respiratory group, dorsal respiratory group and pontine respiratory group
Where are the respiratory centres located? Medulla oblongata and pons
What are the two webs of neurons in the VRG? Inspiratory (I) neurons and expiratory (E) neurons
Which respiratory centre is the primary generator of the respiratory rhythm? Ventral respiratory group (VRG)
In eupnea, how long do I nerve fibres fire for? About 2 seconds at a time
Describe the path of the I nerves during quiet breathing? Issue nerve signals to the spinal cord. Output from the spinal centres travel via phrenic nerves to the diaphragm, and via intercostal nerves to the external intercostal muscles
What happens to E nerves when I nerves are firing? I nerves inhibit E nerves
What causes the I nerves to stop firing? Fatigue or inhibittion
How long does elastic recoil last for? Around 3 seconds
What is the Dorsal Respiratory Group? A web of neurons that extends for much of the length of the medulla between the VRG and central canal of the brainstem
Where does the DRG receive input from? -Respiratory centre in the pons -Chemosensitive centre of the anterior medulla oblongata -Chemoreceptors in certain major arteries -Stretch and irritant receptors in the airway
What does the DRG do? Issues output to the VRG that modifies the respiratory rhythm to ranging conditions
What does the pontine respiratory group do? Issues output on to the DRG and VRG. In order to quicken or slow the transition of inspiration to expiration. Modifies the rhythm of the VRG
Where does the pontine respiratory group receive input from? Hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex
What circumstances effect the PRG? Adapts breathing to cicumstances such as sleeping, crying, gasping or laughing
Where are central chemoreceptors located? Either side of the medulla oblongata, 0.2mm beneath its anterior surface
What do central chemoreceptors respond to? Changes of pH of the cerebrospinal fluid
What does the pH of the CSF reflects? level of CO2 in the blood
Where are peripheral chemoreceptors located, and what do they respond to? Carotid and aortic bodies of the large arteries of the heart. They respond to the O2 and CO2 content and the pH of the blood
How do the carotid bodies of the large arteries of the heart communicate with the brainstem? Glossopharangeal nerves
How do the aortic bodies communicate with the brainstem? Vagus nerves
Where are stretch receptors located? Smooth muscles of bronchi, bronchioles and visceral pleura
How do the stretch receptors respond to inflation of the lungs and signal the DRG? Vagus nerves
Where are irritant receptors located? They are nerve endings in the epithelial cells of the airways
How do irritant receptors communicate with the DRG? Vagus nerves
Where does the voluntary control of breathing originate? In the motor cortex of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum
What are the two divisions of the ANS? Sympathetic and parasympathetic
Where are the preganglionic cell bodies of the sympathetic nervous system located? In the intermediolateral horn of the spinal cord between T1 and L2 or L3
Where are the preganglionic cell bodies of the parasympathetic nervous system located? In the brainstem and sacral portion of the spinal cord
Where do preganglionic fibres of the parasympathetic nervous system exit the brain stem? 3rd, 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerve
Where to the preganglionic fibres of the parasympathetic nervous system exit the spinal cord? At S2 and S3
What is the 10th cranial nerve? Vagus nerve
When is the parasympathetic division of the ANS most active? Under quite conditions, during rest
What is a ganglion? A structure containing a number of nerve cell bodies, typically linked by synapses, and often forming a swelling on the neuron
What neurotransmitter do sympathetic pathways usually use? Acetylcholine and norepinephrine before ganglion. Norepinephrine after the ganglion
What neurotransmitter does the parasympathetic pathway use? Acetylcholine both post- and pre- ganglionic synapses
How are the transmitter signals switched off? Either the enzyme destroys the transmitter or the transmitter is re-captured by presynaptic nerve terminals
What are the two classes of norepinephrine receptors in tissues? Alpha and beta. Subtypes are alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, beta-2
Which subunit of receptors does norepinephrine usually stimulate? alpha receptors
Which subunits of receptors does epinephrine usually stimulate? Alpha and beta equally
Which branch of the ANS stimulates the fight-or-flight response? Sympathetic
The parasympathetic nervous system is anabolic; what does this mean? It conserves and restores
Which parts of the brain are involved in the fight or flight response? The hypothalamus, amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex
What does Cannon's fight-or-flight response suggest about stress? External sources and stimuli trigger increased activity rate and increased arousal. This considers stress to be an adaptive response as individuals respond differently to stimuli
Created by: Sandersem2
Popular Neuroscience sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards