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The Skeletal System

Health Science 1, Ms. Cygul

What are the four types of bones? Long, short, flat, and irregular
What do some scientists recognize as an additional category of the types of bones? Sesamoid, or round, bones
Long bone Longer than it is wider; humerus
Short bone Wider than they are longer; carpals
Flat bone Flatter than they are rounded; frontal bone, skull, pelvis, sternum
Irregular bone Not long, short or flat; vertebrae
Diaphysis Shaft; hallow tube made of hard compact bone; rigid and strong; light enough to move
Medullary cavity Hallow area inside diaphysis; contains soft, yellow bone marrow
Yellow bone marrow An inactive, fatty form of marrow found in adult skeleton
Epiphyses Ends of bone; red marrow fills small spaces in spongy bone
Articular cartilage Think layer of cartilage that covers each epiphysis; acts like small rubber cushion
Periosteum Strong, fibrous membrane; covers long bone everywhere except where there is articular cartilage
Endosteum Thin membrane that lines medullary cavity
What does the structure of flat bones consist of? Compact bone, cancellous bone, and trabeculae
Compact bone Dense; thin layer that surrounds cancellous bone
Cancellous bone Spongy bone or diploe in flat bone; inside of thin layer of compact bone; contains many spaces that may be filled with marrow
Trabeculae Bony portions of spongy bone that surround open spaces; needle-like threads of spongy bone that surround a network of spaces
What are the two major types of connective tissue in bones? Bone and cartilage
How is compact bone organized? Osteons or haversian systems
Osteocytes Mature bone cells that used to be osteoblasts
Osteoblasts Active bone building cells; eventually surround themselves with new bone and become osteocytes located in lacunae
Osteoclasts Bone-resorbing cells
Endochondral ossification Formed in cartilage; many bones of the body are formed from cartilage models
Sinuses Spaces or cavities inside some cranial bones
Mastoiditis Inflammation of air spaces within mastoid portion of temporal bone
Fontanels Areas where ossification is incomplete at birth
Epiphyseal fracture Epiphyseal is separated from diaphysis or epiphysis; can inhibit normal growth
Avulsion fracture Fragment of bone breaks away from entire bone
Osteosarcoma Most common and serious type of malignant bone neoplasm
Chondrosarcoma Cancer of skeletal hyaline cartilage; second most common cancer
Osteoporosis Loss of calcified bone matrix; reduction in number of trabeculae; bones fracture easily
Rickets Loss of bone minerals in the young, before skeletal maturity; gross skeletal changes; treated with vitamin D
Osteomalacia Loss of bone minerals in mature bones; more chances of getting a fracture; treated with vitamin D
Paget disease (osteitis deformans) Faulty remodeling results in bones that fracture easily; genetic or viral
Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone) Bones are brittle due to lack of organic matrix;
Osteomyelitis Bacterial infection
Noninflammatory joint disorders Sinovial membrane does not get inflamed; local symptoms;
Osteoarthritis (DJD) Most common inflammatory disorder of movable joints; "wear and tear arthritis"
Inflammatory joint disorders Arthritis; synovial membrane becomes inflamed; systematic signs and symptoms
Rheumatoid arthritis Systemic autoimmune disease; chronic inflammation of synovial membrane with involvement of other tissues such as blood vessels, eyes, heart, and lungs
Gouty arthritis Synovial inflammation caused by gout, a condition in which sodium urate crystals form in joints and other tissues
Infectious arthritis Arthritis resulting from infection by a pathogen
Created by: StudyFalcon