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Anatomy Lab Quiz 2

The ____ is the smallest structural and functional living unit cell
Parts of human cell: flexible out boundary called ____ plasma membrane
Parts of human cell: an intracellular fluid containing organelles called ____ cytoplasm
Parts of human cell: the control center also known as the ____ nucleus
The plasma membrane is a ______ of lipids and proteins in a constantly changing fluid mosaic. It seperates the fluid inside the cell called the ____ from the ______ outside the cells. The extracellular fluid that surrounds the cells is also called the ___ bilayer, intracellular, extracellular, interstitial
Groups of lipids: _____ (75%) have phosphate heads (polar or hydrophilic) and fatty acid tails (nonpolar and hydrophobic) phospholipids
Groups of lipids: _____ (5%) have polar sugar groups and are mainly on the outer membrane surface glycolipids
Groups of lipids: ______ (20%) increases membrane stability and fluidity cholestrol
Membrane proteins are subdivided into ____proteins that are firmly inserted into membrane, and ____ proteins loosely attached to them. ______ proteins cross the whole membrane from one side to another integral, peripheral, transmembrane
These junctions prevent fluids and most molecules from moving between cells tight junctions
These junctions are rivets or spot-welds that anchor cells together desmosomes
these junctions are transmembrane proteins that form pores to allow small molecules to pass from cell to cell gap junctions
In _____ non polar lipid soluble (hydrophobic) substances diffuse directly through the phospholipid bilayer simple diffusion
In _____ binding of substrate causes a shape change of transmembrane proteins that transport specific polar molecules (ie sugars and amino acids) carrier- mediated facilitated diffusion
Aqueous channels formed by _____ proteins that selectively ansport ions are used in ______ If the channel proteins are always open they are called _____ channels, if they are opened or closed by chemical/ electrical signals they are called ____ channels transmembrane, channel-mediated facilitated diffusion, leakage, gated
Movement of solvent (water) across a selectively permeable membrane is called ___. The channels themselves are called ____. The movement of water is caused by a difference in solute concentration. Water moves from the side of ____ solute concentration osmosis, aqauaporins, lower
When solution outside a cell has same solute concentration as the solution inside the cell (cytosol) it is considered ____ isotonic
If solute concentration is higher outside the cell, it is considered ____ and water will move ____ the cell to equalize concentration hypertonic, out of
A ____ solution would have a solute concentration lower than the cytosol, and the difference would lead to water moving ___ the cell hypotonic, into
Active transport processes can be subdivided into ___ transport, which requires carrier proteins (solute pumps) to move solutes against a concentration gradient, and ____ transport. Both use ATP to move solutes across a living plasma membrane active, vesicular
In _____ transport energy from the hydrolysis of ATP causes a shape change in the transport protein so that bound solutes (ions) are "pumped" across the membrane primary active
The most important pump is the _____ or (____) it is located in all plasma membranes, is involved in active transport of nutrients and ions, and helps maintain ____ gradients sodium potassium pump, Na+K+, electrochemical
______ transport depends on an ion gradient created by primary active transport. The energy stored in ionic gradients is used indirectly to drive transport of other solutes. Because it moves more than one substance at a time it is called ____ secondary active, contrasport
If substances are transported in the same direction it is called a ____ system, if they move in opposite directions an _____ system symport, antiport
_____ transport uses vesicles to move large particles, macromolecules, and fluids across plasma membranes. There are four types Vesicular
Vesicular transport out of a cell exocytosis
Vesicular transport into a cell endocytosis
Vesicular transport through a cell (into, across, then out of cell) transcytosis
Vesicular transport from one area or organelle in a cell to another: substance (vesicular) trafficking
The intake of extracellular fluid and solutes via plasma membrane infolds is called ____ or ____ endocytosis. Larger molecules are taken in via ____ endocytosis pinocytosis, fluid phase, receptor mediated
Special body cells, such as white blood cells, use pseudopods to engulf solids, even whole cells, and bring them to their interior. This type of endocytosis is called ___ and the cells capable of using it are called ____ phagocytosis, phagocytes
The ____ is the intracellular fluid located between plasma membrane and the nucleus. It consists of the ___ (water with solutes), ____, metabolic machinery, and ____, such as granules of glycogen or pigments, lipid droplets, etc cytoplasm, cytosol, cytoplasmic organelles, inclusions
Cytoplasmic organelles can be subdivided into: Membranous and non-membranous organelles
____ are ___ membrane structures with shelf like____. They provide most of the cells ___ via aerobic cellular ____ and contain their own ___ and ___ Mitochondrion, double, cristae, ATP, respiration, DNA and RNA
____ are granules containing protein and rRNA. They are the site of ____ in cytoplasm Ribosomes, protein synthesis
The ____ is made of interconnected tubes and parallel membranes enclosing cisternae that are continuous with nuclear membrane. Two varieties endoplasmic reticulum
External surface of this studded with ribosomes rough ER
Synthesizes steroid based hormones and other lipids. Stores calcium in muscle tissue smooth ER
The _____ consists of stacked and flattened membraneous sacs. It modifies, concentrates, and packages proteins and lipids Golgi Apparatus
___ are spherical membranous bags containing digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases) Lysosomes
____ are also called ____. They contain powerful oxidases and catalases that help detoxify harmful or toxic substances and neutralize dangerous free radicals Peroxisomes, microbodies
The inner frame work of a cell is called ____. ____ are dynamic hollow tubes that determine the overall shape of the cell and the distribution of organelles. cytoskeleton, microtubules
___ are actin strands attached to cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane that are involved in ____, change in shape, endocytosis, and exocytosis Microfilaments, motility
Tough insoluble ropelike protein fibers that resist pulling forces on the cell and attach to desmosomes are called _____ intermediate filaments
The ____ is the "cell center" near the nucleus. It generates microtubules and organizes the mitotic spindle centrosome
Dark- staining spherical bodies within nucleus are called ___ nucleoli
The rest of the nucleus is made of an amorphous substance called ____. It consists of threadlike strands of ___ (30%), ____ proteins (60%), and ____ (10%). They are arranged in fundamental units called _____, which condense into bar-like bodies called __ chromatin, DNA, histone, RNA, chromosomes
Cell cycle period from cell formation to cell division is called: interphase
Cell cycle 2nd stage Mitotic phase aka cell division
DNA replication takes place during ___ phase of interphase. The Y- shaped site of replication is the so called ____. S phase, replication fork
___ rRNA is a structural component of ribosomes that, along with tRNA, helps translate message from mRNA ribosomal
___ RNA (tRNA) binds to amino acids and pairs with bases of codons of mRNA at ribosome to begin process of protein synthesis Transfer
Epithelia can be subdivided into ____ that cover external and internal surfaces and ____, the secretory tissue in glands covering/lining, glandular
Epithelium with single layer of flattened cells simple squamous
Epithelium with single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei simple columnar
Thick epithelial membrane composed of several cell layers with surface cells that are flattened stratified squamous
Stratified epithelium, surface cells dome shaped or squamous like, depending on degree of organ STRETCH transitional
single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at different levels pseudostratified
Epithelium that forms lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels simple squamous
found in ducts and secretory portions of SMALL glands simple cuboidal
nonciliated type lines most of digestive tract simple columnar
keratinized variety forms the epidermis of skin stratified squamous
lines ureters, urinary bladder, and part of urethra transitional
A ___ is one or more cells that makes and secretes an (aqueous) fluid gland
____ glands secrete their product into a ____, whereas ____ glands have lost this connection to a surface, so they are sometimes called ____ exocrine, duct, endocrine, ductless
Glands that consist of one cell only are called ___ glands. The only important type in the human body are called ____ unicellular, goblet cells
____ glands consist of many cells and are composed of a ____ unit that produces the fluid and the ____, which releases fluid onto surface multicellular, secretory, ducts
Multicellular glands can be classified according to their duct system into ___ or ____ and depending on the structure of their secretory units into ____, ___, or ____ simple, compound, tubular, alveolar, tubualveolar
The two basic modes of secretion for ___ glands are ___ and ___ exocrine, Merocrine, Holocrine
_____ is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue type in our body. Unlike the other basic tissue types it is not defined by its ___ but rather by the ___ connective tissue, cells, extracellular matrix
3 functions of connective tissue: Protection, Insulation, Transportation
4 types of connective tissue: CT proper, cartilage, bone, blood
Extracellular matrix of connective tissue consists of ____ and ____ ground substance, fibers (support)
The major components of ground substance are: Interstitial fluid, adhesion proteins, and proteoglycans
Of the 3 fiber types, ___ fibers are the strongest and most abundant. ____ fibers are yellow and allow for stretch. ___ fibers are short, fine, and highly branched collagen, elastic, reticular
Juvenile connective tissue cells that are mitotically active are called ___, whereas mature cells are called ____. blasts, cytes
CT proper has __cytes and __blasts Carilage has ___cytes and __blasts Bone has ___cytes and __blasts Fibrocytes, fibroblasts Chondrocytes, chondroblasts Osteocytes, osteoblasts
This connective tissue comes in loose or dense variety CT proper
This connective tissue is able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength dense irregular
This connective tissue contains a high proportion of elastic fibers. Allows recoil of tissue following stretching dense elastic
This connective tissue is found in LYMPHOID organs such as lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen reticular loose
Connective tissue with gel like matrix with ALL 3 fiber types. Wraps and cushions organs loose areolar
This connective tissue covers ends of long bones in joint cavities and forms costal cartilages of ribs hyaline cartilage
Withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in ONE direction dense regular
network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance loose reticular
Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility ie outer ear elastic cartilage
dense regular connective tissue containing high proportion of elastic fibers dense elastic
found in FIBROUS CAPSULES of organs and of joints and the dermis of skin dense irregular
tendons and most ligaments made of this dense regular
____ membranes or ___ line body cavities that are open to the exterior, whereas ___ membranes or ____ are only found in closed body cavities mucous, mucosa(e), serous, serosa(e)
The serous layer lining an internal body wall is called ____ serosa, the layer coverin the outside of internal organs ____ serosa parietal, visceral
The deepst region of skin called ____, which isnt technically part of the skin but a ____ layer containing mostly ___ tissue. It is also called ____ fascia hypodermis, subcutaneous, adipose, superficial
The epidermis is a typical ____ with many ___ of ___ cells. Because the superficial layer o cells is flat (squamous) the whole structure is called ____ epithelium. stratified squamous, layers, epidermal, stratified squamous
4 Types of Epithelial Cells: ____ which produce fibrous protein _____ Keratinocytes, keratin
4 Types of Epithelial Cells: ____ which produce the main skin pigment ___. They are found mainly in the ____ epidermis and make up ____% of epidermal cells Melanocytes, melanin, lower, 10-25%
4 Types of Epithelial Cells: Macrophages called _____ or _____ cells, which play an important part in the activation of the _____ epidermal dendritic, langerhans, immune system
4 Types of Epithelial Cells: Touch receptors called ___ or ____ cells tactile, Merkel
Thickest layer of epidermis is the: stratum corneum
stems cells only found in this layer of the skin stratum basale (mitotic)
Thinnest layer of skin stratum lucidum
epidermal DENDRITIC cells mainly found in which layer stratum spinosum
Dermis has __ layers called ___ and ____, the ___ is the lower layer which is also the thicker of the 2 2, papillary, reticular, reticular
This layer of the dermis consists of areolar connective tissue Papillary
This layer contains blood vessels to nourish epidermis papillary
Fingerprints are based on ____ that lie atop deeper ____. The papillae contain ___, ___, and ___ epidermal ridges, dermal papillary, capillary loops, Meisners corpuscles, free nerve endings
The ____ layer contains ___ fibers that provide strength and resiliency. The fibers are arranged in bundles leading to formation of ____ reticular, collagen, cleavage lines
3 Pigments of Skin Color: _____ is the major pigment, it can be anywhere from ___ to ___. It is produced by ____ but migrates to _____ where it forms ____ shields above the ___ of the cells to protect the ____ from damaging UV rays melanin, yellow, black, melanocytes, keratinocytes, pigment, nuclei, DNA, UV
3 Pigments of Skin: _____ is an external pigment, mainly found in fruit and vegetables such as ___ carotene, carrots
3 Pigments of Skin: _____ is not in the skin tissue itself, but is the pigment that makes our ____ red. It shines through thinner skin and gives it a pinkish hue Hemoglobin, skin
Skin appendages are derivatives of the ____ epidermis
Sweat glands are also known as ____ glands. They are subdivided into two main types sudoriferous
___ or ____ glands are found on ___, ___, and ___. Their sweat consists mainly of ___ (__%), but also contains ____, especially if a person suffers from kidney failure eccrine, merocrine, palms, soles, forehead, water, 99&, sodium, urea/nitrogen
____ are found in ___ and ___ areas. Their sebum consists of sweat plus ___ and ___ apocrine, axilla, anogenital, fats, proteins
2 specialized types of apocrine glands are ____ that produce milk after childbirth, and ___ glands. Their secretion (___) is supposed to deter insects from crawling into the outer ear canal and together with dead cells forms what we call _____ mammary glands, ceruminous, cerumen, ear wax
Sebaceous glands, also known as __ glands, are widely distributed, but usually develop from ___. Their oily secretion (___) softens and protects hair and skin oil, hair follicles, sebum
Sweat glands found on hairless skin: Eccrine
Sweat glands that dont function before puberty: apocrine, sebaceous
glands that play a major role in temperature regulation: eccrine
The part of a hair above the surface is called ___, while the ___ is the part below the surface shaft, root
The ____ is an invagination that extends from the epidermal surface into the ____. It has a two layered wall with an outer _____ sheath and an inner ___ sheath. hair follicle, dermis, connective tissue root, epithelial root
Hair doesnt grow on: palms, soles of feet, nipples, lips
The fine body hair of children is called ___ hair, while the term ____ hair is applied to the coarse long hair of eyebrows and scalp vellus, terminal
Skin protective functions: ____ barriers such as the acid mantle chemical
Skin protective functions: ____ or ___ barriers such as keratin and glycolipids physical or mechanical
Skin protective functions: ____ barriers such as dendritic cells and macrophages biological
______ is the MOST COMMON skin cancer. It develops from cells in stratum ___. BCC never spreads to other parts of the body but slowly invades ___ and ___. Aprox ___% of all cases can be cured by ____. Basal Cell Carcinoma, basale, dermis, hypodermis, 99%, surgery
_____, the second most common skin cancer, involves ____ of the stratum ____. It is most commonly found on the ___, ___, ____, and ___. The prognosis is good if the lesion is treated with radiation or _____ Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Keratinocytes, spinosum, scalp, ears, lower lip, hands, radiation, removed surgically.
The least common, yet most dangerous form of skin cancer is called ____, because it arises from ___ and usually is of ___ color. It spreads early to other parts of the body and is ____ to chemotherapy Melanoma, melanocytes, black, resistant
Depending on how deep from the surface the damage is, burn injuries are classified as ___ burn if only part of the epidermis and dermis are affected, and as ____ burn if damage to the entire thickness of the skin occured Partial thickness, full thickness
In ___ degree burns the upper part of the ___ has been damaged too. ___ are a typical sign. usually the injury heals without complication unless the wound gets infected 2nd, dermis, Blisters
Once all layers of the skin have been damaged the injury is classified as a ___ degree burn. Because of the damage to nerve endings the injury is surprisingly ____. Treatment usually involves ___ from other areas of the patient 3rd, painless, skin graft
Created by: KAzetapi