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Chapt 3


plasma membrane -forms the cell's flexible outer surface -separating the cell's internal environment (everything inside the cell) from the external environment (everything outside the cell)
what does the plasma membrane do -regulates the flow of materials into and out of a cell to help establish and maintain the appropriate environment for normal cellular activities - plays a key role in communication among cells and between cells and their external environment
cytoplasm - consists of all the cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
The cytoplasm consists of cytosol and organelles
Cytosol the fluid portion of cytoplasm, contains water, dissolved solutes, and suspended particles
cytosol is also called intracellular fluid
Within the cytosol are several different types of organelles
nucleus is a large organelle that houses most of a cell's DNA
chromosome a single molecule of DNA associated with several proteins
genes hereditary units that control most aspects of cellular structure and function.
nucleus contains what chromatin, nuclear envelope, and nucleolus
The basic structural framework of the plasma membrane is the lipid bilayer
lipid bilayer two back-to-back layers made up of three types of lipid molecules—primarily phospholipids with smaller amounts of cholesterol and glycolipids
three types of lipid molecules within the lipid bilayer primarily phospholipids with smaller amounts of cholesterol and glycolipids
The bilayer arrangement occurs because the lipids have both polar and nonpolar parts
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus
The “head” of each phospholipid is polar and hydrophilic
hydrophilic -hydro- = water -philic = loving
the “tails” of the phospholipid are The two fatty acid nonpolar and hydrophobic (-phobic = fearing)
hydrophobic -hydro- = water -phobic = fearing
Cholesterol molecules are -found in both layers of the plasma membrane - are steroids with an attached ─OH (hydroxyl) group
Glycolipids are -lipids with attached carbohydrate groups that form a polar “head” -their fatty acid “tails” are nonpolar.
Created by: jshockley