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Cell The smallest recognizable part of the body that is capable of performing all the activities of life. It is the basic structural and functional unit of an organism. It is a group of chemicals that work together to perform a specific function.
Tissue Two or more cells or a group of cells arranged to perform a specific function are referred to as tissue.
4 primary or basic tissues of the body Epithelial, connective, nerve, muscle
Epithelial Covers the body surface(skin) lines hollow organs (mouth esophagus) its described as being mosaic or title shaped in structure or pattern
Endothelium/ Endothelial Tissue When tissue lines the inside blood vessels it is referred to as
Glandular epithelial tissue When epithelial tissue help in the formation of glands. These cells are specia to secret substances like enzymes, hormones, persp and wax
3 types of glands Exocrine glands, endocrine glands, heterocrine
Exocrine glands Secret their substances or products into ducts that empty onto the surface of the body or into a body cavity or a hollow organ. (Sweat gland , salivary glands,mammary glands)
Endocrine glands Secrete their products (hormones) directly into the bloodstream. Are considered to be ductless glands. (Pituitary glands, thyroid glands, adrenal glands)
Sweat glands Secrete sweat
Salivary glands Secrete digestive enzymes
Mammary glands Secrete milk
Pituitary glands Secretes the hormone that regulates our growth (growth hormone)
Thyroid glands Secretes a hormone responsible for our metabolism (thyroxin)
Adrenal glands Secretes the hormone that is responsible for that "fight" or flight reaction (adrenaline)
Heterocrine glands Glands that have both an endocrine and exocrine portion. (Pancreas)
The exocrine portion of the pancreas (heterocrine gland) Secretes digestive enzymes
Endocrine portion (heterocrine glands) Called the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS or the PANCREATIC ISLETS secret the hormone insulin which regulates the rate of glucose(sugar) usage in the body.
Connective tissue Connects, binds, protects, and supports the body and its organs. Is the most abundant tissue in the body. Found almost everywhere within the body; bones,cartilage, mucous membranes, muscles, skin and all internal organs.
Connective tissue #2 It consists of relatively few cells in a generous matrix(the ground substance and fibers between the cell) in cartilage the matrix is firm yet pliable. In contrast the matrix of bone is hard not pliable
5 categories of connective tissue Dense, Adipose, Cartilage, Osseous, Vascular
Dense connective tissue Provides strong attachment between structures(tendon, ligament, aponeurosis,periosteum, perichondrium, fascia)
Tendon Connects a muscle to bone
Ligament Connects bone to bone
Aponeurosis Broad flat tendon that serves as attachment for a flat muscle with another muscle( muscle to muscle) or a muscle to bone
Periosteum Will cover bone and is essential for bone growth, nutrition, and repair
Perichondrium Covers and nourishes cartilage
Fascia Sheet or band of connective tissue that supports and surrounds muscle and other organs of the body
Adipose connective tissue Cells specialized to store fat. It is found around the heart and kidneys, in yellow bone marrow and behind the eye socket. It reduces heat loss through the skin; serves as an energy reserver as well as supports and protects the organs of the body
Cartilage Endures considerable more stress then other connective tissue. Is a vascular meaning it has no blood vessels. It gets its nourishment ftom the perichondrium. It also has no inervation( it has no nerves)
3 types of cartilage Hyaline(gristle), fibro , elastic
Hyaline cartilage (gristle) Is the most abundant cartilage in the body, affords flexibility and support, is found at the joints, reduces friction between bones, is the weakest of the 3 types of cartilage
2 types of hyaline cartilage Articular and costal cartilage
Articular cartilage Located at the end of bones. An articulation (joint) is a point of contact between two or more bones.
Costal cartilage Located at the ventral (front) end of ribs where they attach to the sternum (breast bone)
Fibro cartilage Combines strength and rigidity, are the strongest of the 3 types of cartilage. Is found between the vertebrae(intervertebral dics) in the pubic symphysis (the area where the two hip bones join anteriorly)
Elastic cartilage Maintains the shape of various structures, is found in the epiglottis (the lid on top of the voice box), the external part of the ear , and the auditory or eustacian tubes
Osseous connective tissue Bone, is the hardest type of connective tissue
Vascular connective tissue Blood, blood is a liquid connective tissue
Nerve tissue Initiates and transmits nerve impulse and coordinates body activities
Muscle tissue Is specialized to produce movement in response to nerve implulses.
Muscles are classified according to both Structure (striated or smooth) and function (voluntary or involuntary)
3 types of muscle tissue Skeletal, visceral,cardiac
Skeletal muscle Attached to the bones of the skeleton, hence the name skeletal. Is striated (alternating light and drak bands called striations that are visible under a microscope) is voluntary because we have the conscious control to move as we wish
Visceral muscle Is located in the walls of hollow internal structures such as blood vessels, airways, lungs, stomach, intestines, gall bladder, and urinary bladder. Is smooth ; are non striated (lack striations) involuntary
Cardiac muscle Forms the wall of the heart, is striated, is involuntary because it is not consciously controlled
Membranes Are thin sheets of flexible tissue that cover or line a part of the body. May contain epithelial and connective tissue(epithelial membrane) or just connective tissue (synovial membrane)
3 types of membranes Mucous(mucosa), synovial (joints), serous (serosa)
Mucous membrane (mucosa) Lines the body cavity that opens directly to the outside, lines the entire digestive, respiratory, reproductive and much of the urinary systems, are important because they act as barrier against microbes and other pathogens
Synovial membrane (joint) Line the cavity of freely movable joints (I.e shoulder, elbow, knee etc) they secrete a fluid called synovial fluid which lubricates and nourishes the cartilage covering the bones
Serous membrane (serosa) Lines a cavity that does not open directly to the outside, serve to cover the organs and will secrete a serous fluid , which is a watery lubricating fluid that allows organs to glide easily over one another
Serous membrane (serosa)#2 Are found in the form of an invaginated double walled space, always have two layers separated by a cavity (parietal layer visceral layer)
Parietal layer Is the layer that is attached to the cavity wall
Visceral layer The layer that covers and attaches to organs inside of the cavity
3 major types of serous membranes (3 p's) Pleura,pericardium, peritoneum
Pleura Is the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and covering the lungs (parietal pleura, visceral pleura, pleura cavity)
Parietal pleura The layer that is attached to the cavity wall
Visceral pleura The layer that covers the lungs
Pleura cavity The space between the parietal and visceral pleura. This cavity is filled with pleural fluid (a serous fluid)
Pericardium The serous membrane lining the heart cavity and covering the heart
Parietal pericardium Is the layer that is attached to the cavity wall
Visceral pericardium/epicardium The layer that covers the heart itself
Pericardial cavity Is the space between the parietal and visceral pericardium. This cavity is filled with pericardial fluid (a serous fluid)
Peritoneum Is a serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and covering the abdominal organs
Parietal peritoneum Lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity
Visceral peritoneum Covers some of the organs in the abdominal cavity as well as some in the pelvic cavity
Peritoneal cavity The slim space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum. This cavity is filled with peritoneal fluid (a serous fluid)
Cell membrane/plasma membrane Is the outer lining of a cell;separates the cell's internal structures from the external environment. It is selectively permeable or semi permeable:allows certain materials to enter and leave the cell. It helps maintain the proper environment within cell.
Solution A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
Homogeneous A mixture that is uniform all throughout the solution.
Solvent Part of the solution present in the greater amount (it does the dissolving) *water
Solute Part of the solution present in the lesser amount. (It is dissolved) *cool aid
2 ways for a solution to reach the point where it becomes homogeneous. Diffusion/osmosis
Diffusion The movement of molecules or other particles in solution from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration until an uniform concentration is reached
Osmosis The process by which a solvent specially water, moves through a semi permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area or higher solute concentration
#2 osmosis The process by which a solvent specially water, moves though a semi permeable membrane from an area of higher solvent concentration to an area of lower solvent concentration
Osmosis can only occur when There is a semi permeable membrane present that is permeable to water
3 kids of solutions Isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic
Isotonic solution Solution in which the concentration of solute is the same on both sides of the semi permeable membrane. It is the ideal solution for a red blood cell to thrive. The environment inside the cell is considered solution number 1
Hypotonic A solution that has a lower concentration of solute and a higher concentration of solvent then the solution to which is being compared
Hypertonic Is a solution that has a higher concentration of solute and a lower concentration of solvent than the solution to which is being compared
Hemolysis The process by which a red blood cell, when placed in a hypotonic solution will swell and burst
Crenation The process by which a red blood cell when placed in a hypertonic solution will shrink and die
Created by: lkak213