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medical terminology

medical terminology chapter 2

Abdomen part of the trunk between the thorax and pelvis
abdominal pertaining to the abdomen
anatomy study of structures of the human body
anterior(opposite of posterior) The front surface of the body; situated in front
caudal(opposite of cephalic same as inferior Pertaining to or nearer to the head
coronal(same as frontal) Pertaining to the vertical p[lane dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions.
distal(opposite of proximal) Situated away from the center of the body.
dorsal(same as posterior) Pertaining to the back or situated behind
lateral(opposite of medial) Situated at the side of a structure
medial(opposite of lateral) Nearer to the middle of the body
posterior(opposite of anterior) Pertaining to the back surface of the body;situated behind
prone( opposite of supine) Laying face down, flat on your belly
proximal(opposite of distal) Situated nearest to the center of the body
sagittal vertical plane through the body dividing it into right and left portions
supine(opposite of prone) laying face up, flat on your spine
transverse Horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions
ventral(same as anterior) Pertaining to the belly or situated nearer the surface of the belly.
Abdominopelvic Pertaining to the abdomen and pelvis
cavity cavities(pl) A hollow space or body compartment
cranial pertaining to the cranium
cranium the skull
diaphragm Muscular sheet separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
Diaphragmatic(adj) pertaining to the diaphragm
quadrant one quarter of a circle; one of four regions of the surface of the abdomen
spine The vertebral column or a short bony protection
Spinal(adj) Pertaining to the spine
thoracic(adj) Pertaining to the chest
thorax The part of the trunk between the abdomen and neck
umbilical Pertaining to the umbilicus or the center of the abdomen
umbilicus Pit in the abdomen where the umbilical cord entered the fetus.
cranial cavity contains the brain within the skull
thoracic cavity contains the heart,lungs,thymus,gland, trachea, and esophagus, and numerous blood vessels and nerves
abdominal cavity separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm, contains the stomach,intestines,liver,spleen, pancreas, and kidneys.
pelvic cavity surrounded by the pelvic bones, contains the urinary bladder,part of the large intestine,the rectum,anus, and the internal reproductive organs.
spinal cavity contains the spine
The whole body or organism is composed of organ systems
organ systems are composed of organs
organs are composed of tisues
Tissues are composed of cells
cells are composed in part of organelles
organelles are composed of molecules
molecules are composed of atoms
zygote cell resulting from the union of sperm and egg.
Conception Fertilization of the egg by sperm to form a zygote.
Cytology is the study of cell.
cell The smallest unit of the body capable of independent existence.
cytologist Specialist in the structure,chemistry,and pathology of the cell.
fertilization(noun) union of a male sperm and a female egg
Fertilize(Verb) Penetration of the egg by sperm
organ structure with specific body functions in a body system.
organelle Part of a cell having special functions.
organism Any whole living, individual plant or animal
tissue collection of similar cells.
As the zygote divides every cell it creates becomes a complex little factory that carries out these basic life functions Manufacture of proteins and lipids production and use of energy communication with other cells replication of dna and production of itself.
Anabolism the buildup of complex substances in the cell from simpler ones as a part of metabolism.
catabolism The breakdown of complex substances into simpler ones as part of metabolism
chromosome body in the nucleus that contains DNA and genes
cytoplasm Clear, gelatinous substance that forms the substance of a cell except for the nucleus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) source of hereditary characteristics found in chromosomes
electrolyte Substance that, when dissolved in a suitable medium, forms electrically charged particles.
hormone Chemical formed in one tissue or organ and carried by the blood to simulate or inhibit a function another tissue or organ.
hormonal pertaining to a hormone
intracellular within a cell
lipid General term for all types of fatty compounds; for example cholesterol, triglycerides and fatty acids
membrane Thin layer of tissue covering the structure or cavity
membranous(adj) Pertaining to the membrane
metabolism The constantly changing physical and chemical processes occurring in the cell that are the sum of anabolism and catabolism
metabolic(adj) Pertaining to metabolism
mitochondrion(sing) Mitochodria(pl) Organelles that generate,store, and release energy of cell activities.
nuleolus small mass within the nucleus
nucleus Functional center of a cell or structure
nuclear(adj) pertaining to the nucleus
protein CLass of food substances based on amino acids.
ribonucleic acid(RNA) The information carrier from DNA in the nucleus to an organelle to produce protein molecules
steroid Large family of chemical substances found in many drugs,hormones,and body components
Arthoscopy Visual examination of the interior of a joint
connective tissue the supporting tissue of the body
cruciate shaped like a cross
histology study of the structure and functions of cells,tissues,and organs
histologist specialist in histology
ligament Band of fibrous tissue connecting two structures.
meniscus Disc of cartilage between the bones of a joint
muscle a tissue containing of contractile cells
patella(sing) Patellae(pl) Thin,circular bone embedded in the patellar tendon in front of the knee joint also called the kneecap.
Patellar pertaining to the patella
therapy Systematic treatment of a disease,dysfunction,or disorder
therapeutic relating to the treatment of a disease or disorder
therapist Professional trained in the practice of a particular therapy.
Capsule Fibrous tissue layer surrounding a jount or other structure
capsular(adj) Pertaining to capsule
cartilage Nonvascular fir connective tissue found mostly in joints
collegen Major protein of connective tissue,cartilage,and bone.
matrix a substance that surrounds and protects cells, is manufactured by the cells, and holds them together
nutrient a substance in food required for normal physiologic function.
periosteum Fibrous membrane covering a bone.
synovial pertaining to the synovial membrane or fluid
tendon Fibrous band that connects muscle to bone.
Cardiovscular Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
digestion Breakdown of food into elements suitable for cell metabolism
digestive(adj) pertaining to digestion
endocrine a gland that produces an internal or hormonal substance
homeostasis(note hemostasis is the arrest of bleeding.) Maintaining the stability of a system or the body's internal environment
integument organ system that covers the body, the skin being the main organ within the system
integumentary(adj) Pertaining to the covering of the body
lymph Clear fluid collected from body tissues and transported by lymph vessels to the venous circulation.
lymphatic(adj) pertaining to lymph or the lymphatic system
nervous Pertaining to a nerve or the nervous system; or easily excited or agitated The whole, integrated nerve apparatus.
nervous system The whole, integrated nerve apparatus.
respiration Process of breathing; fundamental process of life used to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
respiratory(adj) Pertaining to respiration
skeleton The bony framework of the body
Skeletal(adj) Pertaining to the skeleton
urinary(adj) pertaining to urine
Created by: lorie31