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Anatomy & Physiology

four major regions of the brain cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem, and cerebellem
cerebrum divided into two halves and further subdivided into five lobes
two halves of the cerebrum hemisphere
central nervous system brain and spinal cord
brain is... associated with 12 pairs of cranial nerves
the outer surface of the brain has... gyri, sulci, and fissures
gyri folds
sulci shallow depressions
fissures deeper grooves
anterior rostral ("toward the nose")
posterior caudal ("toward the tail")
two tissue areas of the brain and spinal cord gray matter and white matter
gray matter color from motor and interneuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons (outer edges of the brain)
white matter color from myelin on axons (glossy appearance) (spinal area)
protective structures cranium, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood-brain barrier
cranium provides rigid support
meninges surround and partition
cerebrospinal fluid cushions
blood-brain barrier prevents entry of harmful materials
description of cranial meninges three connective tissue layers, separate and support soft tissue of brain, enclose and protect blood vessels supplying the brain, help contain and circulate cerebrospinal fluid
connective tissue layers (deep to superficial) pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater
pia mater innermost of cranial meninges, thin layer of areolar connective tissue, tightly adheres to brain, follows contours of brain surface
arachnoid mater lies external to pia mater, partially composed of collagen and elastic fibers, extend through subarachnoid space, and has subdural space above this layer
arachnoid trabeculae arachnoid mater composed of collagen and elastic fibers and support cerebral arteries and veins
subarachnoid space contains cerebrospinal fluid
subdural space potential space between arachnoid and overlying dura mater, becomes actual space if blood or fluid accumulates there (subdermal hematoma)
dura mater lies external to arachnoid mater, tough dense, irregular connective tissue that has two layers
two layers of dura mater meningeal layer, periosteal layer
meningeal layer immediately superficial to arachnoid
periosteal layer more superficial layer, forms the periosteum on internal surface of cranial bones
epidural space potential space between the dura mater and bones of the skull, contains arteries and veins nourishing meninges and cranium, becomes real space if blood or fluid accumulates
ventricles cavities within the brain (spatious), derived from neural canal, lined with ependymal cells, contain cerebrospinal fluid, share communications with each other, communication with spinal cord's central canal
four ventricles two lateral ventricles, third and fourth ventricle
two lateral ventricles in cerebrum
third ventricle within diencephalon, small, thinner than lateral ventricles, and communicate with each lateral ventricle
fourth ventricle located between pons and cerebellum
cerebrospinal fluid clear, colorless liquid that circulates in ventricles and subarachnoid space and bathes and completely surrounds surfaces of CNS
cerebrospinal fluid functions buoyancy, protection, and environmental stability
buoyancy from CF brain floating here and reduces weight by 95% and prevents collapse of brain through foramen magnum
protection from CF provides liquid cushion, protects delicate neural structures from sudden movements
environmental stability from CF transports nutrients and chemical messengers to brain, removes waste products (to venous circulation), protects tissue from chemical fluctuations
blood-brain barrier (BBB) strictly regulates which substances enter brain's interstitial fluid, helps prevent neuron exposure to harmful substances (i.e. drugs, blood waste products, variations in levels of normal substances (ions, hormones)), & astrocytes are the "gatekeepers"
astrocyte "gatekeepers" controlling materials leaving neurons
barrier not absolute lipid-soluble compounds (i.e. nicotine, alcohol, some anesthetics, and other substances that can diffuse across endothelial plasma membranes) and drugs (i.e. cocaine) can pass through
cerebrum origin of all complex intellectual functions, two large hemispheres on superior aspect of brain
cerebrum is the center of... intelligence and reasoning, thought, memory, and judgment, and voluntary motor, visual and auditory activities
cerebrum composition two halves (L and R cerebral hemispheres), separated by deep cleft (longitudinal fissure, hemispheres are separate, except at a few locations (bundles of axons, tracts, and form white matter connecting regions)
largest tract corpus callosum
corpus callosum provides main method of communication between hemispheres
cerebrum characteristics usually difficult to assign precise function to specific region, innervation, and functional differences exist between hemispheres (i.e. region of brain responsible for speech in left cerebral hemisphere - primarily affects higher-order function)
usually difficult to assign precise function to specific region of cerebrum because overlap and indistinct boundaries and some aspects are not easily assigned to any single region (i.e. memory)
innervation of the cerebrum involves the hemispheres receiving information from opposite sides of the body and hemispheres projecting motor commands to opposite sides of the body (i.e. right cerebral hemisphere controlling the left side of the body)
cerebral lateralization functional differences between hemispheres
five lobes four visible on external surface and named for overlying cranial bones each with specific cortical regions and association areas
names of the five lobes frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital (overly the bones) and insula (not visible at the surface)
frontal lobe deep to frontal lobe, forms anterior part of cerebral hemisphere, ends posteriorly at deep groove (central sulcus) and ends inferiorly at groove (lateral sulcus)
primary functions of frontal lobe voluntary motor function, concentration and verbal communication, decision making, planning and personality
parietal lobe deep to parietal bone, forms superioposterior part of cerebral hemisphere, terminates anteriorly at central sulcus, posteriorly at parieto-occipital sulcus, and laterally at lateral sulcus
postcentral gyrus mass of nervous tissue posterior to central sulcus
primary functions of parietal lobe general sensory functions (i.e. evaluating shape and texture of objects)
temporal lobe internal to temporal bone, inferior to lateral sulcus, and involved with hearing and smell
occipital lobe internal to occipital bone, forms posterior part of cerebral hemisphere, responsible for processing visual information and storing visual memories
insula small lobe deep to lateral sulcus, can be observed by laterally pulling aside temporal lobe, involved in memory and interpretation of taste
structure and function of cerebrum specific structural areas have distinct motor and sensory functions, higher mental functions dispersed over large areas
three categories of functional areas of the cerebrum motor areas, sensory areas, and association areas
motor areas control voluntary motor function, housed within frontal lobes and includes primary motor cortex, motor speech area, and frontal eye field
primary motor cortex located in precentral gyrus of lobe, controls voluntary skeletal muscle activity, projects contralaterally (opposite side) within brainstem or spinal cord (i.e. left primary motor cortex controlling right-side voluntary muscles)
primary motor cortex distribution can be diagrammed as motor homunculus
motor homunculus displays distorted proportions of the body, reflects amount of cortex reflected to each part (i.e. hands large on the homoculus performed detailed, precise movement and more motor activity devoted to human hand than in other animals)
motor speech area (aka Broca area) located in inferolateral portion of left frontal lobe (in most people) and controls muscular movement for vocalization
frontal eye field on superior of middle frontal gyrus, regulates eye movements needed for reading and binocular vision
primary somatosensory cortex housed within postcentral gyrus of parietal lobes, receives somatic sensory information from: proprioreceptors, touch, pressure, pain, and temperature receptors
sensory homunculus can be traced on postcentral gyrus, indicates amount of sensory information collected within the region, large region for lips, fingers, and genital regions
sensory areas primary somatosensory cortex, primary visual cortex, primary auditory cortex, primary olfactory cortex, and primary gustatory cortex
primary visual cortex located within occipital lobe, receives and processes incoming visual information
primary auditory cortex located within temporal lobe and receives and processes auditory information
primary olfactory cortex located within temporal lobe, provides conscious awareness of smell
primary gustatory cortex located within insula, and involved in processing taste information
association areas premotor cortex, somatosensory association areas, visual association areas, auditory association area, functional brain regions, Wernicke areas, and gnostic area
association areas connected to adjacent motor and sensory regions, process and interpret data or coordinate motor response, integrate new sensory inputs with memories
premotor cortex within frontal lobe anterior to precentral gyrus, responsible for coordinating skilled motor activities (i.e. playing the piano)
somatosensory association area within parietal lobe posterior to primary somatosensory complex, integrates sensory information, determines texture, temperature, pressure, and shape of objects, allows us to identify known objections without seeing them
visual association area within occipital lobe, surround primary visual area, helps process visual information, helps us identify things we see (i.e. helps integrate visual information into recognizable face)
auditory association area within temporal lobe, posterioinferior to primary auditory complex, interprets characteristics of sound, stores memories of sound heard in the past
functional brain regions multi-association area between lobes, integrates information from individual association areas
Wernicke area typically located only in left hemisphere, involved in recognizing, understanding, and comprehending spoken and written language, works with motor speech area for fluent communication
gnostic area composed of regions of parietal, occipital and temporal, integrates somatosensory, visual, and auditory information of association areas, provides comprehensive understanding of current activity
diencephalon composition epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus
diencephalon function provides the relay and switching centers for sensory and motor pathway and control of visceral activities
epithalamus partially forms posterior roof of diencephalon, covers the third ventricle, and is the posterior portion
epithalamus composed of pineal gland and habenular nuclei
pineal gland endocrine gland secreting melatonin, helps regulate day-night cycles
cicadian rhythm day-night cycles
habenular nuclei helps relay signals from limbic system to midbrain, involved in visceral and emotional responses to odors
thalamus paired oval masses of gray matter, on lateral walls of third ventricle, located between anterior commisure and pineal gland (middle region of diencephalon)
thalamus functions principal and final relay point for incoming sensory information, receives impulses from all conscious senses except olfaction, processed and projected to primary somatosensory cortex, and information filter (i.e. filters out sounds in busy cafe)
hypothalamus anteriorinferior region of the diencephalon
hypothalamus component infundibulum
infundibulum thin stalk extending inferiorly from hypothalamus, attaches to pituitary gland
functions of hypothalamus master control of the autonomic nervous system (i.e. influence heart rate, blood pressure), master control of endocrine system, regulation of body temperature (located at center of limbic system)
functions of hypothalamus cont. control of food and water intake (produces hunger & thirst sensations), regulation of sleep-wake rhythms (directs pineal gland to secrete melatonin)
brainstem connects cerebrum, diencephalon, and cerebellum to spinal cord, bidirectional passageway, contains many autonomic centers and reflex centers, houses nuclei of many cranial nerves
from superior to inferior sections of brainstem midbrain (just superior to pons), pons, and medulla oblongata
midbrain function vision, hearing, eye movement, body movement
pons function relays sensory info between cerebrum and cerebellum
medulla function controls autonomic functions, relays nerve signals between brain and spinal cord
cerebellum second largest part of the brain, produces fine control over muscular actions, stores memories of movement patters (i.e. playing piano), and balance, coordination, proprioreception, and motor control
cerebellar functions coordinates and "fine-tunes" skeletal muscle movements (ensures skeletal muscles follow correct pattern, stores memories of previously learned movements, ensures smooth movements), helps maintain equilibrium and posture
cerebellar functions cont. receives proprioreceptive information from muscles and joints (helps maintain awareness of body's position & muscle tone & uses information to regulate body's position), continuously receives input from sensory & motor pathways, monitors muscular activity
Created by: Nicolekr



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