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anatomy - chapter 1

an introduction of the human body

what is the science of body structures and the relationships among them? anatomy
what is the careful cutting apart of body strucutes to study their relationships? dissection
what is the science of body functions and how the body parts work? physiology
structures that emerge from the time of the fertilized egg through the eighth week in utero embryology
structures that emerge from the time of the fertilized egg to the adult form developmental biology
microscopic structure of tissues histology
anatomical landmarks on the surface of the body through visualization and palpation surface anatomy
structures that can be examined without using a microscope gross anatomy
structure of specific systems of the body such as the nervous system or respiratory system systemic anatomy
specific regions of the body such as the head or chest regional anatomy
body structures that be visualized through xrays radiographic anatomy
structural changes (from gross to microscopic) associated with disease pathological anatomy
functional properties of nerve cells neurophysiology
hormones (chemical regulators in the blood) and how they control body functions endocrinology
functions of the heart and blood vessels cardiovascular physiology
how the body defends itself against disease-causing agents immunology
functions of the air passageways and lungs respiratory physiology
functions of the kidneys renal physiology
changes in cell and organ functions as a result of muscular activity exercise physiology
functional changes associated with disease and aging pathophysiology
what are the structural levels of organization? chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal
what is the chemical level consisted of? atoms
what kind of atoms are essential for maintaining life? carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur
at the cellular level, what combines together to form cells? molecules
groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together tissue
what are the basic types of tissues? muscular, epithelial, connective, nervous
layer of epithelial tissue and connective tissue that reduces friction when the stomach moves and rubs against other organs serous membrane
what is the innermost lining that produces fluid and chemical responsible for digestion in the stomach? epithelial tissue layer
what are the noninvasive techniques? inspection, palpation, ausculation, percussion
structures that are composed of 2 or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually have recognizable shapes organs
consisted of related organs with a common function system
any living individual organism
what are the basic life processes? metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, reproduction, differentiation
what is catabolism? the breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components
what is anabolism? the building up of complex chemical substance from smaller, simpler components
sum of all chemical processes that occurs in the body metabolism
body's ability fo detect and respond to changes responsiveness
includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and even tiny structures inside cells movement
an increase in body size that results from an increase in the size of existing cells, the number of cells, or both growth
the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state differentiation
precursor cells which can give rise to cells that undergo differentiation stem cells
the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement, or to the production of a new individual reproduction
is the condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment due to the ceaseless interplay of the body's many regulatory processes homeostasis
dilute, watery solutions containing dissolved chemicals that are found inside cells as well as surrounding them body fluids
the fluid within cells intercellular fluid
the fluid outside cells extracellular fluid
the fluid in between cells of tissues interstitial fluid
what is ECF within blood vessels blood plasma
what is ECF within lymphatic vessels lymph
what is the fluid in and around the brain and spinal cord called? cerebrospinal fluid
what is the fluid called in between joints synovial fluid
what is the ECF of the eye called aqueous humor and vitreous body
what is the interstitial fluid that surrounds all body cells often called? internal environment
thin walls of the smallest blood vessels in the body blood capillaries
what are the basic components of the feedback system? receptor, control center, effector
body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control center receptor
sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it recieves from receptors, and generates output commands when they are needed control center
body structure that recieves output from the control center and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition effector
cycle of events in whcih the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, remonitiored, reevaluated, and so on feedback system
reverses a change in a controlled conditionie: regulation of blood pressure negative feedback system
tends to strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the body's controlled conditionsie: child birth positive feedback system
an abnormality of structure or function disorder
more specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms disease
subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer symptoms
objective changes that a clincian can observe and measure signs
science that deals with why, when, and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted among individuals in a community epidemiology
the science that deals with the effects and uses of drugs in the treatment of disease pharmacology
is the science and skill of distinguishing one disorder or disease from another diagnosis
conisist of collecting information about events that might be related to a patient's illness medical history
orderly evaluation of the body and it's functions physical examination
what are the vital signs? temperature, blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse, and sometimes lab tests
descriptions of any region or part of the human body assume that it is in a specific stance is called the... anatomical position
body lying face down prone
body lying face up supine
what body parts does the head consist of? skull and face
what body parts does the face include? eyes, nose, mouth, forehead, cheeks, and chin
what body parts does the trunk consist of? chest, abdomen, pelvis
what body parts does each of the upper limbs consist of? shoulder, armpit, forearm, wrist, and hand
what body parts does each of the lower limbs conist of? buttock, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot
area on the front surface of the body marked by a crease on each side, where the truch attaches to the thighs groin
words that describe the position of one body part relative to another directional terms
toward the head, or the upper part of a structure superior
away from the head, or the lower part of a structure inferior
nearer to or at the front of the body anterior
further from or at the back of the body posterior
nearer to the midline medial
further away from the midline lateral
between 2 structures intermediate
on the same side of the body as another structure ipsilateral
on the opposite side of the body from another structure contralateral
nearer to the attachment of limb to the trunk; nearer to the orgin of a structure proximal
farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; father from the origination of a structure distal
toward or on the surface of the body superficial
away from the surface of the body deep
the heart is _________ to the liver superior
the stomach is _________ to the lungs inferior
the sternum is __________ to the heart anterior
the esophagus is ___________ to the trachea posterior
the ulna is _________ to the radius medial
the lungs are ___________ to the heart lateral
the transeverse colon is _____________ between the ascending and descending colon intermediate
the gallbladder and ascending colon are _____________ ipsilateral
the ascending and descending colons are ____________ contralateral
the humerus is __________ to the radius proximal
the phalanges are _________ to the carpals distal
the ribs are _____________ to the lungs superficial
the ribs are ___________ to the skin of the chest and back deep
vertical planes that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides sagittal plane
when a plane passes through the midline of the body and divides it into equal right and left sides parasagittal plane
divides the body or an organ into anterior and posterior portions frontal or coronal plane
divides the body or an organ into superior and inferior portions transverse plane
passes through the body or an organ at an angle oblique plane
one flat surface of a 3-D structure or a cut along a plane section
are spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs body cavities
formed by the cranial bones and contains the brain cranial cavity
formed by the vetebral column and contains the spinal cord and the beginnings of the spinal nerves vetebral cavity
contains pleural and pericardial cavities and mediastinum thoracic cavity
each surrounds a lung; the serous membrane of these cavities is the pleura pleural cavity
surrounds the heart; the serous membrane of this cavity is the pericardium pericardial cavity
central portion of the thoracic cavity between the lungs; extends from sternum to vetebral column and from neck to diaphragm; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels mediastinum
subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities abdominopelvic cavity
contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of large intestine; the serous membrane of the this cavity is the peritoneum abdominal cavity
contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction pelvic cavity
top horizontal line, drawn just inferior to the rib cage, across the inferior portion of the stomach subcostal line
bottom horizontal line, just inferior to the tops of the hip bones transtubercular line
two vertical lines, the left and right, are drawn through the midpoints of the clavicles, just medial to the nipples midclavicular lines
what are the names of the abdominopelvic regions? right/left hypochondriac, right/left lumbar, right/left illiac/ hypogastic, epigastric, umbilical
organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities viscera
allow visualization of internal structures to diagnose abnormal anatomy and deviations from normal physiology medical imaging
components: skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands integumentary system
functions: protects the body, helps regulate body temperature; eliminates some wastes; helps make vitamin D; and detects sensations such as touch pain, warmth and cold integumentary system
components: bones, joints, cartilage skeletal system
functions: supports and protects the body; provides a surface area for muscle attachments; aids body movements; houses cells that produce blood cells; stores minerals and lipids (fats) skeletal system
components: muscles composed of skeletal muscle tissue muscular system
functions: produces body movements, such as walking; stabalizes body position (posture); generates heat muscular system
components: brain, nerves, spinal cord, eyes, ears nervous system
functions: generates action potentials to regulate body activities; detects changes in the body's internal and external environment, interprets the changes, and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions nervous system
components:hormone-producing glands (pineal, hypothalamus, pituitary, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, testes) endocrine system
functions: regulates body activities by releasing hormones, which are chemical messengers transported in blood from an endocrine gland to a target organ endocrine system
components: lymphatic fluid and vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils lymphatic system
functions: returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; includes structures where lymphocytes that protect against disease causing microbes mature and proliferate lymphatic system
components: blood, heart, blood vessels cardiovascular system
functions: heart pumps blood through blood vessels, blood components help defend against disease and ment damaged blood vessels cardiovascular system
components: lungs, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes respiratory system
functions: transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids; air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sounds respiratory system
components: organs of gastroinstestinal tract, a long ube that includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, anus, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas digestive system
functions: achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food; absorbs nutrients; eliminates solid wastes digestive system
components: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra urinary system
functions: produces, stores, and elimates urine; elminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood; helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids; maintains body's mineral balance; helps regulate production of red blood cells urinary system
components: gonads and associated organs reproductive system
functions: gonads produce gametes that unite to form a new organism; gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store gametes reproductive system
Created by: hdungo23
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