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anatomy - chapter 1
an introduction of the human body
|what is the science of body structures and the relationships among them?
|what is the careful cutting apart of body strucutes to study their relationships?
|what is the science of body functions and how the body parts work?
|structures that emerge from the time of the fertilized egg through the eighth week in utero
|structures that emerge from the time of the fertilized egg to the adult form
|microscopic structure of tissues
|anatomical landmarks on the surface of the body through visualization and palpation
|structures that can be examined without using a microscope
|structure of specific systems of the body such as the nervous system or respiratory system
|specific regions of the body such as the head or chest
|body structures that be visualized through xrays
|structural changes (from gross to microscopic) associated with disease
|functional properties of nerve cells
|hormones (chemical regulators in the blood) and how they control body functions
|functions of the heart and blood vessels
|how the body defends itself against disease-causing agents
|functions of the air passageways and lungs
|functions of the kidneys
|changes in cell and organ functions as a result of muscular activity
|functional changes associated with disease and aging
|what are the structural levels of organization?
|chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal
|what is the chemical level consisted of?
|what kind of atoms are essential for maintaining life?
|carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur
|at the cellular level, what combines together to form cells?
|groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together
|what are the basic types of tissues?
|muscular, epithelial, connective, nervous
|layer of epithelial tissue and connective tissue that reduces friction when the stomach moves and rubs against other organs
|what is the innermost lining that produces fluid and chemical responsible for digestion in the stomach?
|epithelial tissue layer
|what are the noninvasive techniques?
|inspection, palpation, ausculation, percussion
|structures that are composed of 2 or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually have recognizable shapes
|consisted of related organs with a common function
|any living individual
|what are the basic life processes?
|metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, reproduction, differentiation
|what is catabolism?
|the breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components
|what is anabolism?
|the building up of complex chemical substance from smaller, simpler components
|sum of all chemical processes that occurs in the body
|body's ability fo detect and respond to changes
|includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and even tiny structures inside cells
|an increase in body size that results from an increase in the size of existing cells, the number of cells, or both
|the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state
|precursor cells which can give rise to cells that undergo differentiation
|the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement, or to the production of a new individual
|is the condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment due to the ceaseless interplay of the body's many regulatory processes
|dilute, watery solutions containing dissolved chemicals that are found inside cells as well as surrounding them
|the fluid within cells
|the fluid outside cells
|the fluid in between cells of tissues
|what is ECF within blood vessels
|what is ECF within lymphatic vessels
|what is the fluid in and around the brain and spinal cord called?
|what is the fluid called in between joints
|what is the ECF of the eye called
|aqueous humor and vitreous body
|what is the interstitial fluid that surrounds all body cells often called?
|thin walls of the smallest blood vessels in the body
|what are the basic components of the feedback system?
|receptor, control center, effector
|body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control center
|sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it recieves from receptors, and generates output commands when they are needed
|body structure that recieves output from the control center and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition
|cycle of events in whcih the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, remonitiored, reevaluated, and so on
|reverses a change in a controlled conditionie: regulation of blood pressure
|negative feedback system
|tends to strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the body's controlled conditionsie: child birth
|positive feedback system
|an abnormality of structure or function
|more specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms
|subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer
|objective changes that a clincian can observe and measure
|science that deals with why, when, and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted among individuals in a community
|the science that deals with the effects and uses of drugs in the treatment of disease
|is the science and skill of distinguishing one disorder or disease from another
|conisist of collecting information about events that might be related to a patient's illness
|orderly evaluation of the body and it's functions
|what are the vital signs?
|temperature, blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse, and sometimes lab tests
|descriptions of any region or part of the human body assume that it is in a specific stance is called the...
|body lying face down
|body lying face up
|what body parts does the head consist of?
|skull and face
|what body parts does the face include?
|eyes, nose, mouth, forehead, cheeks, and chin
|what body parts does the trunk consist of?
|chest, abdomen, pelvis
|what body parts does each of the upper limbs consist of?
|shoulder, armpit, forearm, wrist, and hand
|what body parts does each of the lower limbs conist of?
|buttock, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot
|area on the front surface of the body marked by a crease on each side, where the truch attaches to the thighs
|words that describe the position of one body part relative to another
|toward the head, or the upper part of a structure
|away from the head, or the lower part of a structure
|nearer to or at the front of the body
|further from or at the back of the body
|nearer to the midline
|further away from the midline
|between 2 structures
|on the same side of the body as another structure
|on the opposite side of the body from another structure
|nearer to the attachment of limb to the trunk; nearer to the orgin of a structure
|farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; father from the origination of a structure
|toward or on the surface of the body
|away from the surface of the body
|the heart is _________ to the liver
|the stomach is _________ to the lungs
|the sternum is __________ to the heart
|the esophagus is ___________ to the trachea
|the ulna is _________ to the radius
|the lungs are ___________ to the heart
|the transeverse colon is _____________ between the ascending and descending colon
|the gallbladder and ascending colon are _____________
|the ascending and descending colons are ____________
|the humerus is __________ to the radius
|the phalanges are _________ to the carpals
|the ribs are _____________ to the lungs
|the ribs are ___________ to the skin of the chest and back
|vertical planes that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides
|when a plane passes through the midline of the body and divides it into equal right and left sides
|divides the body or an organ into anterior and posterior portions
|frontal or coronal plane
|divides the body or an organ into superior and inferior portions
|passes through the body or an organ at an angle
|one flat surface of a 3-D structure or a cut along a plane
|are spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs
|formed by the cranial bones and contains the brain
|formed by the vetebral column and contains the spinal cord and the beginnings of the spinal nerves
|contains pleural and pericardial cavities and mediastinum
|each surrounds a lung; the serous membrane of these cavities is the pleura
|surrounds the heart; the serous membrane of this cavity is the pericardium
|central portion of the thoracic cavity between the lungs; extends from sternum to vetebral column and from neck to diaphragm; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels
|subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities
|contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of large intestine; the serous membrane of the this cavity is the peritoneum
|contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction
|top horizontal line, drawn just inferior to the rib cage, across the inferior portion of the stomach
|bottom horizontal line, just inferior to the tops of the hip bones
|two vertical lines, the left and right, are drawn through the midpoints of the clavicles, just medial to the nipples
|what are the names of the abdominopelvic regions?
|right/left hypochondriac, right/left lumbar, right/left illiac/ hypogastic, epigastric, umbilical
|organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
|allow visualization of internal structures to diagnose abnormal anatomy and deviations from normal physiology
|components: skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands
|functions: protects the body, helps regulate body temperature; eliminates some wastes; helps make vitamin D; and detects sensations such as touch pain, warmth and cold
|components: bones, joints, cartilage
|functions: supports and protects the body; provides a surface area for muscle attachments; aids body movements; houses cells that produce blood cells; stores minerals and lipids (fats)
|components: muscles composed of skeletal muscle tissue
|functions: produces body movements, such as walking; stabalizes body position (posture); generates heat
|components: brain, nerves, spinal cord, eyes, ears
|functions: generates action potentials to regulate body activities; detects changes in the body's internal and external environment, interprets the changes, and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions
|components:hormone-producing glands (pineal, hypothalamus, pituitary, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, testes)
|functions: regulates body activities by releasing hormones, which are chemical messengers transported in blood from an endocrine gland to a target organ
|components: lymphatic fluid and vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils
|functions: returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; includes structures where lymphocytes that protect against disease causing microbes mature and proliferate
|components: blood, heart, blood vessels
|functions: heart pumps blood through blood vessels, blood components help defend against disease and ment damaged blood vessels
|components: lungs, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes
|functions: transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids; air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sounds
|components: organs of gastroinstestinal tract, a long ube that includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, anus, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
|functions: achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food; absorbs nutrients; eliminates solid wastes
|components: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
|functions: produces, stores, and elimates urine; elminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood; helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids; maintains body's mineral balance; helps regulate production of red blood cells
|components: gonads and associated organs
|functions: gonads produce gametes that unite to form a new organism; gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store gametes