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What happened in 1453? Fall of Constantinople/Turks; marked end of byzantine empire and italy's trade began to shrink
What happened in 1492? Spanish voyage of Columbus starts, offset 3 centuries of conquest/ trade with new world
What happened in 1517? Martin Luther makes 95 Theses, challenged indulgences and promoted sola fide
What happened in 1588? English defeat Spanish Armada; spain never fully recovered and gave heart to protestant resistance
What happened in 1648? Treaty of Westphalia; ended 30 years war and said rulers had right to determine relgiion of subjects
What happened in 1688? Glorious Revolution; James II peacefully replaced by William and Mary as English monarchs and marks beginning of constitutional monarchy in England
What happened in 1740? War of Austrian Succession; Frederick II siezed Austrian province of Silesia and shatters Pragmatic Sanction, Maria Theresa reconquers it and preserved Habsburg power,
What happened in 1789? French Revolution Begins; marks beginning of new political order in france
What happened in 1815? Napolean exiled and Holy Alliance formed at Congress of Vienna,
What happened in 1848? Revolutions of 1848; liberals want more representation and working class more rights, after this middle class stopped being revolutionary
Define renaissance? what were the 3 characteristics period of transition from medieval to modern times; centralized govs, economy based on commerce, people/gov control culture
what happened to italian city states in 13th and 14th century? dominated bc trade + pope and emperor busy fighting while merchant oligarchies grew
what were the 5 main city states? Milan, Venice, Florence, Naples, Papal states
who was cosimo de medici wealthy/powerful florentine businessman, patron of arts
What is humanism scholarly study of latin/greek classics both for its own sake + to revive ancient values
how did scholastics differ from humanists? scholastics believed in tradition and authority, humanists classical and more open minded
Who was Petrarch? Father of humanism
how was renaissance art different from medieval? focused on natural world
What was Treaty of Lodi Brought Milan and Naples into alliance with Florence so Italy could maintain balance of power/defend against enemies
what was pope julius II called? major accomplishment called warrior pope because of military conquest, drove the french out of italy
what did machiavelli most want? what did he write for city-states to stop fighting so they could drive out foreign armies, wrote Prince on how a prince should be despotic
What big change happened in gov in renaissance? what were 2 effects? feudal monarchies --> centralized monarchies, national armies and taxes on poor
What were Ferdinand and Isabella's 4 main accomplishments in Spain? subdued nobility, secured borders, military conquests, christianized spain
WHo was erasmus? northern humanist/relgious reformer who wanted to combine classical ideals with christian ideals
What was the Black Legend? Bartolome de las Casa's idea about how spanish treatment of native americans was inhumane
what contributed to the growing lay criticism of the church? laity becoming more educated bc printing press
causes of protestant reformation more educated laypeople, towns taking stand against gov, peasants want liberation, princes want to weaken church
what was the modern devotion? boarding school for laypeople who watned to practice individual piety
Luther's main doctrine sola fide; justification by faith alone
what is an indulgence permitted people to buy their way out of purgatory for sins
what happened at diet of worms/ Luther presented his views to Emperor Charles V and the German states. Luther was ordered to withdraw but refused
Who was Charles V` Holy Roman Emperor during the Protestant reformation, rejected luther
What were the Habsburg Valois wars? spain and france fight major wars over italian territory
How did Luther's relationship with the peasants change? Why first he supported the peasants because he thought they should have rights but then they started revolting so he called them un-christian (he didn't want to be part of a peasant revolt)
who was zwingli and major ideas? leader of swiss reformation,believed in clerical marriage and authority of scripture
What was the marburg colloquy? Meeting that tried to solve the Martin Luther and Zwingli disputes; bc zwingli believed christ only spiritually present in the eucharist
who were the anabaptists? who was their leader? radical protestant group that rejected infant baptism; conrad grebel
main calvinist ideas, stronghold predestination (god has already decided if u are going to heaven or hell) Geneva
what did the Diet of augsburg do that all Lutherans revert to catholicism,didnt work because reformation was too strong
What did the Peace/Treaty of Augsburg do? What was the effect? who did it not give rights to? It made the division of Christendom permanent by letting ruler of land decide its religion --> lutheranism becomes HRE religion, not anabaptists or calvinists
what was the reason for the reformation parliament in england so that henry could marry ann boleyn
what was the act of supremacy? Established the English Monarch as head of the Church of England.
What was the act of uniformity?who was it a win for imposed thomas cranmer's book of common prayer on all english churches; protestants
who were the jesuits? main ideal and leader main counter reformation group, complete obedience to church; ignatius of loyola
what did the council of trent do? reaffirmed catholic ideals, some reforms like stopped benefice system and clergy had to be educated
what characterized the late 15 and early 16th c in europe religious wars
what are politiques a ruler who keeps political unity by promoting religious tolerance
who were the guises powerful french family associated with militant catholicism, wanted to take throne
who were the bourbons rivaling french family who were protestants
who was catherine de medicis? queen regent for son Charles IX, king of france. tried to be in between the 2 sides (guises and Protestants)
what happened at st bartholomew day massacre? what was the impact? the crown ordered thousands of Huguenots + Coligny to be murdered in Paris, supported by Catherine de medicis; changed it from a french religious struggle to international struggle
what was the new protestant resistance theory focused on political resistance --> lower magistrates had right to oppose rulers if they were being tyrannical
who was king phillip the II of spain extremely catholic, brought spain power until armada defeated
Who was Henry of Navarre french king who was a politque bc converted from Protestantism to Catholicism to keep peace
Edict of Nantes and effect gave Huguenots rights of public worship, access to universities/offices, rights to fortify towns ONLY in their own towns turned long hot war into long cold war
Who was Mary Tudor english queen who reinstated catholicism and persecuted protestants
who were puritans extreme protestants who followed calvinist model and wanted autonomous congregations
what was the revolt in the netherlands, who led it, and what was the outcome? dutch protestants revolt against phillip's catholic rule, william of orange, get independence in 12 years truce and spain weakened
4 causes of 30 years war politically/religiously divided germany, protestant vs catholic conflict
who was Albrecht of Wallenstein mercenery general who fought for Holy roman emperor and broke protestants in denmark
who was gustavas adolphus? protestant swedish king who won battle of breitinfield that was turning point in war
what did the treaty of westphalia do" ended 30 years war, reaffirmed that territories determine own religion, calvinism became legal, HRE dissolved, independence of Sweden + netherlands
main effects of 30 years war germany destroyed, germany weakened, ended wars of religion, france as main power
Who was James I Scottish king who became English king after Elizabeth, anti-parliament, wanted Anglicanism so faced problems with Puritans
WHo was Charles I English king who was anti-parliament, pro Anglican religious conformity
Oliver Cromwel Led the Puritan Republic in England which turned into hated military dictatorship
Charles II Led the restoration monarchy that gave monarchy authority over Parliament, anglicanism as supreme religion
Glorious Revolution William of Orange came to England and took over without a fight, James II fled
Fronde French noble rebellions that taught Louis to not use heavy-handed policies
Louis XIV French absolute ruler who believed in divine right, controlled nobility, passed Revocation of Edict of Nantes which suppressed Protestants
Philip V Spanish king who inherited Habsburg lands, reason for War of Spanish Succession
Battle Of Lepanto Turks loses control of Mediterranean in naval battle vs Spain + others, hurts Ottoman expansion
Austrian Habsburgs ruled Habsburg empire that had lots of territories around Europe
Hohenzollerns , who were they led by ruled Prussian empire, led by Great Elector who built an army and royal government
Romanovs, who were they led by ruled Russian empire, led by Peter the Great who centralized gov and built navy
Great Northern War Russian war against Sweden to control Baltic in which Russia won, which gave them influence in Europe
What were the 4 reasons for rise of of netherlands? the decline Urban life, Farming , Trade + Finance, Overseas Empire ; decline because lost leadership and industries
how did Louis XIV make absolute gov in france; what were the effects divine right, controlled nobility, made parlements, relgious conformity; france becomes superior power
what happened in war of spanish succession; what was the result War over Habsburg lands where France fought everyone else and lost bc poor finance and weapons; france weakened and england gets territories
What was the pragmatic sanction charles Vi has no male heirs, so establishes single line of inheritance so his daughter could rule the empire which maintains future habsburg rule
what happened to the ottoman empire in 17th/18th c? Lost power because less advanced compared to other European powers
ptolemaic system belief in earth-centered/geocentric universe
Copernicus main idea+ work introduced idea of heliocentric universe, wrote On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres
Kepler main idea + work said paths of planets elliptical not circular, wrote New Astronomy
Galileo 2 ideas + works saw new stars + moons through telescope and said universe subject to math, wrote Starry Messenger and Letters on Sunspots
Newton was father of physics, made laws of gravity and practiced empiricism, wrote Principia Mathematica
Bacon father of empiricism, opposed scholastic belief that everything had already been discovered
Empiricism belief that one must observe phenomena before trying to explain them
Mechanism explains the world in mechanical terms
Descartes developed scientific method (deductive reasoning) beyond empiricism, wrote Discourse on Method
Margaret Cavendish woman who contributed to scientific literature with Observations upon Experimental Philosophy
Maria Winkelmann worked with her husband to make astronomical calendar, used guild to advantage
John Lock famous work, views on gov, view on human nature Treatise on Government; ruler can be overthrown if tyrannical, human nature is good and blank slate
Thomas Hobbes famous work, views on gov, view on human nature Leviathan, absolute gov, human nature is selfish and needs ruler to escape that state
What was the taille Old Regime French land tax that nobles were exempt from
Junker Prussian nobles who had power in courts + over serfs
. Peter the Great Russian ruler who sought to control nobility through Table of Ranks
Table of Ranks equated Russian nobles status to state service
Parlements French regional judical bodies made of nobles
Enclosures fencing of common lands to commercialize agriculture
What was the aristrocatic resurgence? nobility’s reaction to threat they felt from expanding monarchies, so made it harder to become a noble and increased taxes on peasants
what was pugachev's rebellion? larges 18th c peasant rebellion in russia,
what was the main factor in 18th c population growth? what did it lead to more food; high demand for goods, new labor force
cause of industrial revolutiotn; effects need to meet demand of consumer economy, increased wealth; labor as a commodity, ubranization, growth of capital cities/ports, women lose importance,
what was the transatlantic slave trade goods exchanged for slaves in africa,
Created by: mhaq.16