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Child development

list some benefits of establishment of therapeutic alliance with children in hospitalized children reduced surgical morbidity and improved physiologic and behavior outcomes, improved competence, self management, fewer days of hospitalization an ddecreased ER visits. improved coping with disease, fewer days of school missed, better functional health
this test was developed for newborns to assess cardiovascular and respiratory function APGAR test
what does APGAR stand for activity, pulse, grimace, appearance, respiration
for each category of APGAR, this scale is present 0-3
what is the highest possible APGAR score possible that can be given? 10
how long after birth is the APGAR test given? 1 minute, 5 minutes
at 1 minute, an APGAR score of this indicates severe cardiopulmonary depression and the infant requires immediate resuscitative measures 3-4
at 1 minute, an APGAR score of this indicates mild central nervous system depression 5-6
an APGAR score greater or equal to this indicates a grossly normal cardiopulmonary examination 8
describe the palmar grasp. at what age does it manifest? hand closes over finger 28 weeks gestation-2 months
describe the tonic neck reflex. at what age does it appear? when head is turned, same side leg extends, and other side arm and leg flex. appears at 35 weeks-7/8 months
describe the stepping reflex of a child when held erect, neonate takes steps. (37 weeks gestation-2/4 months)
describe the Moro reflex startled by loud noise or abrupt movement, neonate abducts arms, then flexes and adducts them (28 weeks-3/6 months)
describe the babinski reflex extension of toe when sole is stroked. (32 weeks-1year)
describe the pupillary reflex constriction of pupils with light (32 weeks), never disappears
describe the two principles of child development cephalo-caudal, proximo-distal
during which of piaget's stages does learning occur through direct perception and action on the environment sensory motor period
during what age does a child develop object permanence 12-18 months- they enjoy the peek-a-boo game
describe the "mothereese" way of talking high pitched, short, slow, distinct utterances, special itonation, here-and-now content, repetition. babies do babbling, echolalia
which do you hear first, vowels or consonants? vowels
at what age do children start walking? 1
at what age do children start talking? 2
which comes first, primitive reflexes, or voluntary behavior? primitive reflexes
the grasp reflex disappears at what age? 2 months
describe the progression of grasping with the hand of a child ulnar to radial
which comes first pronation or supination pronation
hand preference appears at what age? 1-3 years
hand preference development at what age indicates pathology? before 1 year
at what age do toddlers learn to climb stairs, run awkwardly, throw ball, do telegraphic speaking ("mommy go") 18 months
at what age do children appear to run well two years
which is greater in a child, the expressive vocab, or the receptive vocab receptive
at what age can children have normal conversations? 3 years
at what age do children stop wetting when they're not supposed to? 4
at what age do children stop soiling when they are not supposed to? 3
it is important to wait for this before potty training a child readiness
list some examples that a child is ready to be potty trained child's interest in toilet, displeasure from soiled or wet diaper, privacy or other routines for defacation. coercion is ineffectual and perhaps harmful
fears and temper tantrums are common at what age? toddler age
toddlers cannot easily do these things delay gratificaiton, suppress anger, see another's perspective (suggestions: distracting child, ignore, time out)
this status in toddlers show short term increase in development and health low SES
this status in children show short term increase in colds, long term decrease in colds middle SES
in this age range, there is a huge increase in language, cognitive, and fine motor skills. they begin academic readiness, so you should encourage reading 3-6
by this age, children use various tenses, number concepts are underway, they follow three step commands. they can participate in an office examination 5 years
"the clock is buzzing because it's excited that the morning is here" is an example of what animism
"windy because a huge fan is blowing" is an example of... artificialism
"the sun rises to wake me up" is an example of... egocentrism
child must take medicine because doctor put otoscope in ear is an example of... transductive reasoning
at this age, a child can ride tricycle, climb stairs alone, put on shoes 3 years
at this age, child can throw a ball overhand, work fasteners, use table utensils properly 4 years
at this age, a child can skip, hop, complex activities such as swim and skate, and do show tying 5 years
describe the child play during ages 3-6 cooperative play beings, increasing preference for same age playmates, increase sex stereotyped play, group and competitive sports introduced. second languages and musical lessons also started for some.
this age range shows Piaget's stage of concrete operations. there is concept of conversation, reversibility, 6-12 school age years
by this age, the brain is adult size 6
by this age, sleep has adult balance of 20% REM 10
what else happens in school aged chilren 6-12? peer contact increases dramatically, same sex peer relationships become especially close, mastery, competition, especially important, self esteem, how do i compare to my peers? do people like me?
this technique combines longitudonally obtained clinical information with standardized screening when necessary. highly accurate and low cost. the single most predictive piece of information is parental concern (80% accurate) developmental surveillance
as a physician, you should always ask about what during well child visits? developmental questions
list some categorized parent concerns emotional, behavioral, speech, language, social skills, self help skills, gross motor, fine motor, global
list the steps for decision making process for developmentla surveillance elicit/probe parent concern, categorieze parent concern, screen, monitor, refer, counsel
describe behavioral surveillance helping parents understand their child's behavior, distinguishing between normal and abnormal behavior, modifying parenting actions int eh best interests of their children (this is harder in some cases than others)
a 6 month old girl shakes a rattle with her left hand, but will not grasp a rattle placed in her right hand. this indicates what? possible fine motor problems
the single most predictive piece of information in developmental surveillance is what? parental concern
Created by: aferdo01