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Ocular Diseases #4

Questions for Lens

Name the 3 areas in the lens where cataracts form. Subcapsular, Nuclear, Cortical
What are the main symptoms of cataracts? Decreased vision, Increased glare (especially with PSC), Decreased vision contrast, and Change in color perception
What is a brunescent cataract? Dark brown, hard cataract
What is a Morgagnian cataract? A hypermature cataract - liquified peripheral cortex, floating hard nuclear
What is a mature cataract? Completely white cataract
Which type of cataract is frequently associated with other diseases and/or corticosteroid usage? PSC (Posterior Subcapsular)
What test are important in evaluating the proper IOL power? Axial length, Corneal curvature (Keratometry), Anterior chamber depth and width
How do we evaluate the corneal endothelium and why? By slit lamp exam (looking for endothelial guttatae) and the endothelial cell count. Patients with low ECC may develop corneal edema after cataract surgery.
What is the most common type of cataract surgery performed? Phacoemulsification
What are the 2 most common types of IOLs used? Posterior chamber and Anterior chamber IOLs
What is the leading cause of decreased vision in uncomplicated cataract surgery? CME- Cystoid Macular Edema
What topical medication is used prophylactically to prevent and to treat Cystoid macular edema? Topical NSAIDS - Bromfenac, Nepefenac
List five symptoms we should be aware of in the post-operative cataract patient when they should be told to come in immediately. Increased pain, decreased vision, vomiting, loss of some visual field, increased hyperemia (Redness)
Can you name five possible causes of post-operative cataract symptoms that require immediate care? Intraocular hemorrhage, Infection or inflammation, Glaucoma, Wound leaks, Retinal or Choroidal detachment
What is the most dreaded post-op complication? Endophthalmitis
What is Phthsis Bulbi? End stage of diseased eye- Is shrunken, scarred, and enophthalmic
In evaluating cataracts, what tests do we use to determine their need for surgery? Vision contrast sensitivity, Glare testing (BAT- Brightness Acuity Test), PAM (Potential Acuity Measurement)
How do we treat posterior capsular opacification? YAG laser
Created by: Leequa