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Anatomy

Muscles of the Dog Attachments and Actions

QuestionAnswer
Sternothyroideus Attach: 1st costal cartilage Caudolateral surface of thyroid cartilage. Action: Pull tongue and larynx caudally
Sternomastoideus Attach: Manubrium and mastoid part of temporal bone. Action: Draw head and neck to side
Linea Alba Mid Ventral Raphe (fuses with thoracolumbar fascia)
Superficial Pectoral Muscle Attach: Whole crest of greater tubercle and the first 2 sternebrae (sometimes the 3rd)and Fibrous raphe between adjacent muscle. Action: Adduct the muscle when it is not bearing weight or when it is bearing weight to prevent it from being abducted
Deltoideus Attach: spine and acromiom of scapula and deltoid tuberosity (lateral proximal part of humerus). Action: Flex the shoulder joint
Cleidomastoides Attach: Clavicular intersection and mastoid part of temporal bone. Action: advance limb, extend shoulder joint, and draw head and neck to side
Cleidocervicalis Attach: Clavicular intersection and cranial 1/2 of dorsal raphe (and sometimes to the nuchal crest of the occipital bone). Action: Draw limb forward, extend shoulder joint and draw head and neck to side
Latissiumus Dorsi Attach: cranial and just proximal of midline of humerus, the last 2 or 3 ribs, thracolumbar fascia from spinous process of lumbar and last 7 or 8 thoracic vertebra. Action: Draw limb caudally as in digging, and flex shoulder joint
Teres Minor Attach: Teres minor tuberosity (lateral proximal humerus), distal caudal 1/2 border of scapula. Action: flex shoulder and rotate arm laterally
Serratus Ventralis Attach: transverse processes of the last five cervical vertebra, first seven or eight ribs ventral to their middle, dorsal medial third of the scapula. Action: Provide support to the trunk and depress scapula.
Thoracolumbar Fascia Deep fascia of the truck, arises from the supraspinous ligament and spines of thoracic and lumbar vertebra, fuses with mid ventral raphe
Sternooccipitalis Attach: manubrium and nuchal crest of occipital bone. Action: draws head and neck laterally
Trapezius Attach: spinous processes of third cervical vertebra to the ninth thoracic vertebra by the supraspinous ligament, spine of the scapula, and dorsal raphe. Action: elevate and abduct forelimb
Infraspinatus Attach: infraspinous fossa and lateral side of greater tubercle. Action: Depends on angle if it extends or flexes joint, abducts shoulder and rotates laterally. Also provides lateral stability
Sternohyoideus Attach: Manubrium and first costal cartilage and basihyoid bone. Action: Draw tongue and larynx caudally
Omotransversarius Attach: Transverse process (wing) of Atlas and distal caudal end of spine of scapula. Action: advance limb or flex neck laterally and advance limb
Deep Pectoral Muscle Attach: Ventral part of sternum, fibrous raphe between fellow muscle, deep fascia in region of xiphoid cartilage, Lesser tubercle of humerus, connected by an aponeurosis to the greater tubercle of the humerus, caudally connected to medial brachial fascia
Cleidobrachialis Attach: Clavicular intersection, Distal cranial third of humerus. Action: advance limb, draw head and neck to side, extend shoulder joint
Rhomboideus (has capitis, cervicis, and thoracis) Attach: spinous processes of first seven thoracic vertebra, dorsal raphe, nuchal crest of occipital bone, dorsal edge of scapula Action: elevate forelimb, draw scapula against the truck.
Cutaneous Trunci Attach: Superficial fascia Action: Twitches skin
Costochondral junction Where the cartilage meets bone ventral on the ribs
Costal Arch tenth, eleventh, and twelfth ribs unite to form this
Supraspinatus Attach: supraspinous fossa, greater tubercle of humerus by a thick tendon Action: extend and stabilize shoulder joint
Deep Antebrachial Fascia A single dense sleeve for the muscles of the forearm on the caudal surface of the forelimb
Biceps Brachii Attach: P: The supraglenoid tubercle (on distal cranial scapula). D: The ulnar and radial tuberosities (proximal medial radius and proximal medial ulna). Action: Flex elbow and extend shoulder joint.
Transverse Humoral retinaculum A band of fibrous tissue that joins the greater and lesser tubercles and holds the tendon of the biceps brachii in the intertubicular groove
Anconeus Attach: P: The lateral Supracondylar crest and the medial and lateral epicondyles. D: The lateral proximal ulna. Action: Extend the elbow.
Coracobrachialis Attach: P: Coracoid process of the scapula (cranial distal). D: The crest of the lesser tubercle (the medial mid proximal humerus caudal to the teres major tuberosity). Action: to adduct, extend and stabilize the shoulder joint
Triceps Brachii Accessory Head Attach: P: Neck of humerus. D: The olecranon tuber. Action: Extend the elbow.
Triceps Brachii Medial Head Attach: P: Mid proximal medial humerus (crest of lesser tubercle) D: The olecranon tuber. Action: Extend the elbow.
Triceps Brachii Lateral Head Attach: P: Lateral Proximal Humerus (tricipital line). D: olecranon tuber. Action: extend the elbow
Triceps Brachii Long Head Attach: P: caudal border of scapula: D: The olecranon tuber. Action: Extend the elbow and flex the shoulder
Tensor Fasciae Antebrachii Attach: P: The fascia on the lateral side of latissimus dorsi. D: Olecranon. Action: Extend elbow
Extensor Carpi Radialis Attach: P: The lateral Supracondylar crest (the lateral distal humerus). D: The small tuberosities on the dorsal surfaces of the base of metacarpals II and III. Action: To extend the carpus.
Common Digital Extensor Attach: P: The lateral distal humerus (lateral epicondyle). D: The dorsal proximal part of the distal phalanges II through V. Action: to extend the 4 principle digits and helps extend the carpals
Lateral Digital Extensor Attach: P: The lateral epicondyle of the humerus. D: The dorsal proximal part of the distal phalanges of digits III-IV. Action: To extend digits III-IV and extend the carpus.
Ulnaris Lateralis Attach: P: The lateral epicondyle of the humerus. D: The lateral aspect of the proximal end of metacarpal V and the accessory carpal bone. Action: To abduct and flex the carpal joints.
Supinator Attach: P: The lateral epicondyle of the humerus. D: The cranial proximal 1/4 of the radius. Action: rotate forearm so the palmar side of paws faces medially, to flex the elbow.
Pronator Teres Attach: P: the Medial epicondyle of the humerus. D: the medial border of the radius between the proximal and middle thirds. Action: rotate the palmar side of the paws is facing the ground, to flex the elbow.
Flexor Carpi Radialis Attach: P: medial epicondyle of the humerus and medial border of the radius. D: The Palmar side of metacarpals II and III. Action: To flex the carpus.
Superficial Digital Flexor Attach: P: The medial epicondyle of the humerus. D: the palmar proximal surface of the middle phalanges of digits II, III, IV, and V. Action: to flex the carpus, metacarpophalangeal, and proximal interphalangeal joints of digits II, III, IV, and V.
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Attach: Ulnar Head P: caudal border and medial surface of the olecranon. Humeral Head: P: medial epicondyle of the humerus. D: the accessory carpal bone. Action: to flex the carpus.
Deep Digital Flexor Attach: Humeral Head P: the medial epicondyle. Ulnar Head P: the proximal 3/4 of the caudal border of the ulna. Radial Head, P: Middle third of the medial border of the radius. D: The palmar proximal part of the distal phalanges of each digit. Action: Fle
Pronator quadratus Attach: P & D: The opposed surfaces of the radius and ulna. Action: To pronate the paw.
Brachialis Attach: P: proximal third of the lateral surface of the humerus. D: The ulnar and radial tuberosities (medial proximal on both). Action: Flex the elbow.
Abductor Pollicis Longus At:P: lateral border & cranial surface of body of ulna; interosseous membrane. D: proximal metacarpal 1. Act: extend carpus & abduct 1st phalange.
Semitendinosus Attach: P: The ischiatic tuberosity. D: The proximocranial border of the tibia & the medial surface of the body of the tibia and tuber calcanei by crural fascia. Act: extend hip, flex stifle, extend hock.
Semimembranosus At: P: ischiatic tuberosity. D: distal medial lip of caudal rough surface of the femur and proximal end of the tibia. Act: extend hip, part that attaches to femur extends the stifle, tibia part flexes or extends stifle, depending on angle
Sartorius Cranial Part At: Cranial Part P: crest of ilium and thoracolumbar fascia. D: patella, with the rectus femoris of the quadriceps. Act: flex hip, extends the stifle
Sartorius Caudal Part At: P: the cranial ventral iliac spine and the adjacent ventral border of the ilium. D: the cranial border of the tibia, with the gracilis. Act: flex the hip and the stifle.
Gracilis At: P: the pelvic symphysis by the symphysial tendon. D: the cranial border of the tibia, and the tuber calcanei. Act: adduct the limb, flex the stifle, and extend the hip and hock.
Femoral Triangle Contains the femoral artery and vein.
Pectineus At: P: iliopubic eminence and pubic tubercle via the prepubic tendon. D: the distal end of the medial lip of the caudal rough face of the femus. Act: to adduct the limb
Adductor At: P: entire pelvic symphysis by symphysial tendon, the adjacent part the ischiatic arch, and ventral surface of the pubis and ischium. D: entire lateral lip of hte caudal rough face of the femur. Act: to adduct the limb and extend the hip.
Tensor Fasciae latae At: P: tuber coxae and adjacent part of ilium, the aponeurosis of hte middle gluteal muscle. D: lateral femoral fascia. Act: tense the lateral femoral fascia, flex the hip, and extend the stifle.
superficial gluteal AT: P: the caudal border of the sacrum, the first caudal vertebra, cranial dorsal iliac spine by deep gluteal fascia. D: third trochanter. Act: extend hip and abduct limb.
Middle Gluteal At: P: crest and gluteal surface of the ilium. D: greater trochanter. Act: to extend and abduct the hip, rotate the pelvic limb medially.
Deep Gluteal At: P: body of the ilium, ischiatic spine. D: cranial aspect of the greater trochanter. Act: extend and abduct the hip and rotate the pelvic limb medially.
Internal Obturator At: P: the symphysis pelvis and the dorsal surface of the ischium and pubis. D: the trochanteric fossa of the femur. Act: to rotate the pelvic limb laterally at the hip.
Gemelli At: P: the lateral surface of the ischium, caudal to the acetabulum and ventral to the lesser ischiatic notch. D: the trochateric fossa. Act: rotate the pelvic limb laterally at the hip.
Quadratus femoris At: P: ventral surface of the caudal part of the ischium. D: intertrochanteric crest. Act: to rotate the pelvic limb laterally.
External obturator At: P: ventral surface of the pubis and ischium. D: the trochanter fossa. Act: rotate the pelvic limb laterally.
Quadriceps femoris (four heads) At: P: rectus femoris-illium; vasti muscles-proximal femur. D: tibial tuberosity. Act: extend the stifle and flex the hip (rectus)
Iliopsoas (psoas major and iliacus) At: Psoas major D: lumbar vertebra. Iliacus D: cranioventral ilium. D: lesser trochanter. Act: flex the hip.
Deep crural fascia fascia covering the muscles of the leg and the free lying surfaces of the crural skeleton.
Annular ligament A fibrous loop that attaches to the calcaneus
Cranial Tibia At: Extensor groove and adjacent articular margin of the tibia, the lateral edge of the cranial tibial border. D: the plantar suface of the base of metatarsals I and II. Act: flex the tarsus and rotate the paw laterally.
Long digital extensor At: P: the extensor fossa of the femur. D: the extensor processes of the distal phalanges of digits II, III, IV, and V. Act: to extend the digits and flex the tarsus
Peroneus longus At: P: lateral condyle of the tibia, proximal end of fibula, lateral epicondyl of the femus by the lateral collateral ligament. D: 4th tarsal bone, the plantar aspect of the base of the metatarsals. Act: to flex the tarsus and rotate the paw medially so t
Teres Major At: P: caudal angle & adjacent caudal border of scapula, caudal border of subscapularis. D: lateral proximal cranial humerus. Act: flex shoulder, rotate medially
Created by: ClassOf2012