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APII Blood


What type of tissue is blood? Fluid
What are the functions of blood? Distribution of O2, waste products, & hormones. Maintain body temp, normal tissue pH, & adequate fluid volume.
What is blood plasma? A straw-colored, sticky fluid, 90% water, contains over 100 different dissolved solutes, including nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes and products of cell activity, proteins, and in-organic ions (electrolytes).
3 formed elements of blood? Erythrocytes(RBC), Leukocytes(WBC), Platelets
Define Hemopoiesis(aka hematopoiesis) Production of all blood cells
Define Erythropoiesis Production of RBCs
Define Leukopoiesis Production of WBCs
Define Thrombopoiesis Production of platelets
What causes Hypoxia? Low O2 supply. Caused by low number of RBCs due to hemorrhage or excessive bleeding, insufficient hemoglobin per RBC, reduced availability of O2 as might occur at high altitudes or during pneumonia.
What causes Leukocytosis? WBC count over 11,000 cells/ul. This is a normal homeostatic response to an infection in the body.
What causes Leukopenia? Abnormally low WBC count, commonly induced by drugs, particularly glucocorticoids and anticancer agents.
6 things you must know about Erythropoietin Name: Erythropoietin(EPO) Stimulus: normal production, drop in number of RBCs Production Site: kidney Target Site: red bone marrow Action: increase RBC production Response: delivery O2 via RBCs
4 things you must know about Thrombopoietin(TPO) Name: Thrombopoietin(TPO) Stimulus: normal production, response to wounds/hemorrhage Production Site: Liver Action: increase platelet production
What results from RBCs having no nucleus? Greater surface area, more room inside for O2 & CO2 transport, no self-repair(last 120 days)
% of O2 in Hb? 98.5%
% of O2 in Plasma? 1.5%
% of CO2 in Hb? 23%
% of CO2 in Bicarb? 70%
% of CO2 in Plasma? 7%
What is carbaminohemoglobin? CO2 + Hb
What is carboxyhemoglobin? CO + Hb
What is oxyhemoglobin? O2 + Hb
Define Phagocytosis The process of engulfing & ingesting microorganisms, antigens, and cellular debris (“cell eating”)
Define Emigration in regards to phagocytes The process of engulfing & ingesting microorganisms, antigens, and cellular debris (“cell eating”)
Define Antigen Anything foreign (non-self), or perceived as foreign
Define Pathogen Harmful or disease causing microorganisms
What are Granulocytes? Phagocytes, cytoplasm appears 'grainular', multi-lobed nuclei
What are Agranulocytes? Cytoplasm does not appear granular, single-lobed nuclei
Describe Neutrophil Pale lilac cytoplasm color; 2-5 lobed; Connected blob nucleus; combats acute bacterial infections; 1st line of defense; Most abundant WBC; 1st to site.
Describe Eosinophil Red/orange cytoplasm color; 2-lobed; saddlebag shaped nucleus; combats histamine response by releasing histaminase, parasitic worms; destroys Ag-Ab complexes; 2nd line of defense.
Describe Basophils Blue/purple cytoplasm color; 2-lobed; wig/hat shaped nucleus; combats allergic reactions by releasing histamine; 2nd line of defense; more rare WBC.
Describe Lymphocytes Sky blue cytoplasm color; round indented nucleus; provides immune response; 3rd line of defense; 2nd most abundant WBC; B,T,NK cells.
Describe Monocytes Blue/Gray foamy cytoplasm color; Horse shoe shaped nucleus; combats chronic bacterial infections; 1st line of defense - macrophage; 2nd to site; becomes wandering macrophage.
What are B-Cells? (B-Lymphocytes) Derived from bone marrow; differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies
What are T-Cells? (T-Lymphocytes) Mature in the Thymus; lifespan of hours to years; can directly attack & destroy antigens via cytolysis(breakdown cells)
What is Rh factor? It signifies whether the RBC surface antigen is present or not (+ or -)
Why is the Rh factor important? There is typically no reaction the first time Rh+ is exposed to Rh-, however after that there can be a reaction. An Rh- mother with a Rh+ fetus can cause problems resulting in anemia, hypoxia, brain damage, or even death.
Created by: vgflgirl



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