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MS: Medical Terms

Medical Terms of the Musculoskeletal System

osseous Bony; composed of bone; pertaining to bone
osteoblast A cell associated with the production of bone
osteoclast A large cell associated with the absorption and removal of bone
osteocyte A mature osteoblast
collagen A fibrous insoluble protein found in the white fibers of connective tissue including bone, ligaments and tendons
periosteum The specialized conncetive tissue covering all the bones of the body
endosteum The connective tissue membrane lining the medullary cavity of bones
medullary Pertaining to bone marrow or the inner portion of an organ
diaphysis The portion of a long bone between its ends; the shaft of a bone
epiphysis The end of a long bone that is usually wider than the shaft. Contains a center for growth in lenght
ossification The formation of bone; the normal process of hardening of bone by calcification
calcification Deposit of calcium salts within bony tissues
axis A straight imaginary line passing through the center about which body or part may rotate
axial Pertaining to or forming an axis
appendicular Pertaining to an appendage such as a limb or extremity
skeleton The bony framework of the body consisting of 206 bones
skeletal Pertaining to the skeleton
cranium The skull; that portion of the skull which encloses the brain
frontal Pertaining to the forehead or forehead bone
parietal Pertaining to the two bones that form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium
temporal Pertaining to the temple or central sides of the cranium; of the two bones of the cranium located abov and around each ear
occipital Pertaining to the back and most of the lower base of the skull
sphenoid Wedge-shaped; pertaining to the bat-shaped bone that extends behind the eyes, forming the anterior base of the cranium and part of each orbit
ethmoid Sieve-like, pertaining to the delicate bone that forms much of the internal nasal structure and part of each orbit
suture One of the jagged seams that unite the adjoining bones of the skull
fontanel A space located at the junction of the sutures in the skull of the infant. The fontanels are often called "soft spots"
sinus One of the eight air-filled cavities in the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity
orbital Pertaining to the orbit or eye socket
zygoma The cheekbone. The two zygomae form the bony arch that extends along the front and side of the skull below the orbits
maxilla One of the pair of bones forming the upper jaw
maxillary Pertaining to the upper jaw bone
mandible The lower jaw bone; horseshoe-shaped
mandibular Pertaining to the lower jaw bone
nasal Pertaining to the nose or one of the two bones that form the bridge of the nose
vertebra A backbone; any one of the bones of the spinal column
intervertebral Situated between two adjacent vertebrae
cervical Pertaining to the neck; the seven cervical vertebrae are designated C1-C7
thoracic Pertaining to the chest; the 12 thoracic vertebrae are designated T1-T12
lumbar Pertaining to the loin or small of the back. The five lumbar vertebrae are designated L1-L5
sacrum The large triangular bone near the lower end of the spinal column to which the hip bones are attached. Composed of the five fused vertebrae
coccyx The tail bone or small bone at the end if the spinal column. Formed by the fusion of several rudimentary vertebrae
coccygeal Pertaining to the coccyx or tail bone
costa A rib
intercostal Between the ribs; situated between the ribs
sternum The breastbone; a long flat bone shaped somewhat liked a dagger and joined to the cartilages of most of the ribs anteriorly
manubrium The upper portion of the sternum
xiphoid process The lower end of the sternum
pelvis The large basin or cup-shaped ring of bone at the base of the spinal column
pelvic Pertaining to the pelvis or pelvic bone
ilium The supermost (uppermost) bones of each pelvic bone
ischium The inferoposterior bone of each of the pelvic or hip bones
pubis The inferoanterior bone of each of the hip bones
symphysis The cartilaginous joint formed by the union og the 2 pubic bones at the midline
clavicle The collar bone or clavicula; a curved bone that joins with the sternum medially and the acromion process of the scapula
clavicular Pertaining to the collar bone
scapula The shoulder blade; a large flat triangular bone
glenoid Socket-like; resembling a socket
acromion The lateral extension of the projecting spine of the scapula
humerus The upper arm bone. The head of the proximal end fits into the glenoid cavity
radius The shorter and thicker of the two forearm bones located on the side of the thumb
ulna The forearm bone on the side of the little finger that extends from the wrist to the elbow
carpus The eight bones of the wrist; the wrist
metacarpus The five bones of the hand between the wrist and fingers
phalanx Any bone of a finger or toe, each finger or toe having three such bones and the thumb and great toe having two
phalanges (pl.) (fuh-LAN-jees)
acetabulum The hip socket; the cup-shaped cavity on the outer aspect of the hip bone
os innominatum The innominate bone(nameless bone). It forms the lateral half of the pelvis
os coxae The hip bone or pelvic bone
femur The thigh bone; the longest, strongest bone in the human body
patella The knee-cap; a small flat triangular bone located in front of the knee joint within the inserting tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle
tibia The shin bone; the medial, larger bone of the lower leg
fibula The smaller lateral bone of the lower leg. One of the longest and thinnest bones of the body
tarsus The ankle; the 7 bones of the ankle including the heel bone
calcaneus The heel bone; the irregular bone at the back if the tarsus
metatarsus The part of the foot between the tarsus and the toes
phalangeal Pertaining to a phalanx or the phalanges
condyle A rounded knobby projection at the end of a boen that fits into a joint
malleolus The rounded bony prominence or projection on either side of the ankle joint
fossa A furrow or depression in a bone or other structure
olecranon The large process of the ulna forming the bony prominence of the elbow
foramen A natural opening, especially in a bone, that may pass into or through the bone
foramina (pl.) (for-AM-in-a)
meatus A tube-shaped passage
mastoid Formed like a breast or nipple; pertaining to the mastoid process of the temporal bone
process A noticeable projection of bone
articulation A joint; the junction of two or more bones
ligament A band of strong fibrous connective tissue serving to hold the articular ends of bones together or to hold organs in place
tendon A strong cord of fibrous connective tissue serving to attach muscles to bones
bursa A small closed sac containing synovial fluid, usually found within joint areas subject to friction
meniscus A crescent-shaped fibrocartilage in the knee joint
retinaculum Tight transverse fibrous bands or ligaments that serve to bind down the tendons close to the bones as they pass over a joint
Created by: lorriej