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Anatomy Ch. 6 Vocab

Bones + Skeletal Tissue vocab terms

perichondrium layer of dense connective tissue (that resists outward expansion + surrounds cartilage)
articular cartilage covers the ends of long bones
costal cartilage connects ribs to sternum
respiratory cartilage makes up larynx, reinforces air passageways
nasal cartilage supports nose
appositional growth cells in the perichondrium secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
interstitial growth lacunae-bound chondrocytes inside the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within
axial skeleton bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
appendicular skeleton bones of the upper & lower limbs + girdles
girdles shoulders + hip bones (connect to axial skeleton
long bones longer than they are wide
short bones cube-shaped bones of the ankle & the wrist
sesamoid bone bone that forms within tendons
flat bones thin, flattened, & a bit curved (sternum + most skull bones)
irregular bones bones with complicated shapes (vertebrae + hip bones
sesamoiditis caused by doing the same type of toe movements over & over again
bone markings projections, depressions, & openings found on the surface of bones
bone projections sites of muscle, ligament, & tendon attachment + joint surfaces
bone depressions openings for the passage of blood vessels + nerves
compact bone bone that composes dense outer layer
spongy (cancellous) bone internal to compact bone + consists of trabeculae
trabeculae honeycomb, needle-like, or flat pieces (in spongy bone)
diaphysis tubular bone shaft
bone collar surrounds a hollow medullary cavity; forms around hyaline cartilage during the first stage of bone growth
medullary cavity filled with yellow bone marrow (fat)
epiphyses ends of a long bone: consist of internal spongy bone covered by an outer layer of compact bone
epiphyseal line located between the epiphyses and diaphysis; remnant of the epiphyseal plate
periosteum double-layered protective membrane (covers external surface of bone)
Sharpey's fibers connective tissue fibers that secure the periosteum to underlying bone
endosteum connective tissue membrane that lines the internal surface of bone
diploe endosteum-covered spongy bone
hematopoietic tissue (of bones) red bone marrow
calcification occurs to cartilage during normal bone growth + old age
osteogenic "osteoprogenitor cells"
osteoblasts bone forming cells
osteocytes mature bone cells
osteoclasts large cells that reabsorb + break down bone matrix
osteoid part of the matrix that contains ground substance + collagen fibers
hydroxyapatites inorganic mineral salts that make up 65% of bone mass
osteon / Haversian system structural unit of compact bone
lamellae weight-bearing, concentric tubes of bone matrix (surrounding a central Haversian canal)
Haversian canal a passageway for blood vessels + nerves
Volkmann's/perforating/transverse canals lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone; connect the blood + nerve supply (of the periosteum) to that of the central canals + medullary cavity
lacunae small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes
canaliculi hair-like channels that connect lacunae to each other & the central canal
circumferential lamellae located just beneath the periosteum, extending around the entire circumference of the bone
interstitial lamellae lie between intact osteons, filling the spaces in between
osteogenesis / ossification the process of bone tissue formation
intramembranous ossification forms bone from fibrous connective tissue membranes; results in the cranial bones + clavicles
endochondral ossification bone tissue replaces hyaline cartilage, forming all other bones
growth zone ("proliferation") cartilage cells undergo mitosis, pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
transformation zone hypertrophic zone + calcification zone
hypertrophic zone older cells enlarge
calcification zone matrix becomes calcified, cartilage cells die, & matrix begins to deteriorate
osteogenic zone new bone formation occurs
bone remodeling balance bone deposit & resorption
bone resorption allows minerals of degraded bone matrix to move into the blood
alkaline phosphatase essential for mineralization of bone: creates an alkaline environment which is required for calcium to crystallize
osteoid seam unmineralized band of bone matrix
calcification front abrupt transition zone between the osteoid seam & the older mineralized bone
hormonal mechanism control loop maintains blood calcium homeostasis + balances activity of parathyroid hormone & calcium
calcitonin stimulates osteoblasts to deposit calcium in bone
parathyroid hormone (PTH) signals osteoclasts to degrade bone matrix + release Ca2+ into the blood
Wolff's law a bone grows or remodels in response to the forces or demands placed upon it
fracture break in bone
nondisplaced fracture bone ends retain their normal position
displaced fracture bone ends are out of alignment
complete (fracture) bone is broken all the way through
incomplete (fracture) bone is not broken all the way through
linear (fracture) the fracture is parallel to the long axis of the bone
transverse (fracture) the fracture is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone
compound (open) fracture bone ends penetrate skin
simple (closed) fracture bone ends do not penetrate skin
growth hormone triggers postnatal bone growth
resorption bays grooves formed by osteoclasts as they break down bone matrix
stage 1 fracture repair hematoma formation
stage 2 fracture repair fibrocartilaginous callus formation
granulation tissue soft callus
hematoma a mass of clotted blood
osteomalacia includes disorders in adults in which the bone is inadequately mineralized (caused by calcium or vitamin D deficiency)
Rickets inadequate mineralization of bones in children caused by insufficient calcium or vitamin D (bowed legs + deformation of the pelvis, skull, & rib cage)
osteoporosis a group of disorders in which the rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of formation
Paget's disease excessive bone deposition & resorption, with the resulting bone abnormally high in spongy bone (localized)
Boomerang Dysplasia characteristic congenital feature in which bones of the arms & legs are malformed into the shape of a boomerang
secondary ossification centers formed by the epiphyses which are not well ossified at birth
stage 3 fracture repair bony callus formation
stage 4 fracture repair remodeling of the bony callus
Created by: phiaaa



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