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Anatomy- Muscles

Anatomy and Physiology- Chapter 6

Muscle Fibers Muscle cells
Striated Muscle It has obvious stripes
Voluntary Muscle It is subject to conscious control
Endomysium A delicate connective tissue sheath that encloses a muscle fiber
Perimysium A coarser fibrous membrane around the Endomysium
Fascicle A bundle of Perimysium
Epimysium Binds several Fascicle with a tough connective tissue
Tendons strong, cord-like epimysium
Aponeuroses Sheetlike which attach muscle to bone and catilages
Smooth Muscle No Striations and is involuntary
Cardiac Muscle Only found in the heart, striated and involuntary
Sarcolemma Oval Nuclei
Myofibrils Long, ribbon-like organelles
Sarcomeres Chains of tiny contractile units
Myofilaments Thread-like protein
Thick Filaments Made mostly of bundled molecules of Myosin
Thin Filaments Composed of actin
Cross Bridges Where the thin and thick meet
Actin Contractile protein
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum A specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Motor Unit One neuron and all the skeletal muscle cells it stimulates
Axon A thread-like extension of a neuron
Axon Terminals Distal terminations of the branches of an axon.
Neuromusclular Junctions The neuromuscular junction connects the nervous system to the muscular system via synapses between efferent nerve fibers and muscle fibers
Synaptic Cleft The gap between the nerve endings and the muscle cells' membranes
Neurotransmitter A chemical released by nerve cells
Acetylcholine A neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle
Action Potential An electrical current resultant in the firing of a neuron
Graded Responses Different degrees of response
Complete Tetanus When there is no evidence of relaxaion
Incomplete Tetanus When there is evidence of relaxation
Creatine Phosphate A high-energy molecule
Aerobic Respiration Involves a series of metabolic pathways
Lactic Acid A colorless syrupy organic acid formed in sour milk and produced in the muscle tissues during strenuous exercise
Anaerobic Glycolysis The transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen are available
Muscle Fatigue When a muscle is unable to contract
Oxygen Deficit temporary oxygen shortage in cells resulting from strenuous exercise
Isotonic Contractions Tension remains unchanged and the muscle's length changes.
Isometric Contractions When the muscles do not shorten
Muscle Tone A state of continuous partial contractions
Prime Mover The muscle that has the major responsibility for causing a particular movement
Synergists Help prime movers by producing the same movement
Fixators Specialized synergists
Created by: jdbishop17