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Dialysis M3

Exam 1

The Urinary system consists of? Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder and Urethra
How long is the Kidney? 4 inches
Kidneys are shaped like a? Bean
Kidney weight 150 grams
Kidneys are about the size of? A fist
What sits onto of the kidneys? Adrenal gland
Blood going to the kidney? Renal artery
Blood going away from the kidneys? Renal vein
waste, urine leaves the kidneys by way of the? Ureter
2 main parts to the kidney? Medulla and Cortex
The Kidneys are located? Left and right of the lumbar spine in the retroperitoneal space, posterior abd wall.
Kidney slightly lower then left due to size of the liver? Right Kidney
What are the three layers of protection of the kidney's? Renal capsule, Adipose capsule (peri-renal fat) and Renal fascia
the kidneys move downward during? inspiration as the diaphragm contracts
Urine moves through the system by? Peristalsis
The kidneys are innervated by the? Sympathetic nervous system
Renal Cortex, outer region consists of? Nephrons, Glomerulus, Bowmans capsule, Proximal and Distal tubules and Collecting tubules
Renal Medulla, inner region consists of? Renal pyramids, Renal columns, Renal papilla, Renal pelvis, Major calyx
How many Nephrons are in the kidney? Over a million
The functional unit of the kidney is the? Nephron
The nephron is divided into three segments? Renal corpuscle, Renal tubule and Juxtaglomerular apparatus
What are the two types of nephrons? Cortical 80-85% and Juxtamedullary 15-20%
T/F Kidneys are highly vascular organs? True
Every minute approx _______ ml of blood flows through them? 1200
The kidneys filture the blood how many time an hour? 12
Total plasma volume is filtered ____ times per day 60
Formula for GFR 140-Age X Kg wt___ devided by 72 X Serum Creatinine
__% of the filtrate is reabsorbed 99
Reabsorption also occurs by active ______ transport. active and passive
ADH is released from ______and causes reabsorption of water in distal tubules and collecting ducts. posterior pituitary
____% of filtered Na reabsorbed, 65% in proximal tubule. 98
Potassium is actively reabsorbed in the ______ tubule, secreted in distal tubule. proximal
1845 - Thomas Graham – Scottish chemist wrote paper “On Osmotic Force”. Graham’s Law: The rate of diffusion of a substance is inversely proportional to the square root of the masses of the molecules or the molecular weights.
1855 – German physiologist, Fick, used collodion as 1st membrane. Fick’s Law: The rate of diffusion of a solute is directly proportional to the concentration difference from one area to another.
1877 – Wegener, German physician injected fluid into peritoneal cavity of animals.
1889 - Richardson reference to use collodion membranes in dialysis of blood
1967 1st clinical trial of hollow fiber dialyzer
1994 current entitlement benefits for people under 65 with ESRD
1983 cost containment and quality control
1981 omnibus budget reconciliation act of
1972 social security amendment (public law 92-603)
1964 home dialysis began
1960 quinton-schribner shunt
BUN 8-20 breakdown of protien
uremia uric acid waste products, constituents
azotemia nitrogenous waste
creatinine muscle breakdown
serum creatinine .7-1.5mg/dl
acute comes on fast and can go away
chronic comes on slow and will stay
ARF labs elevated BUN alagoria, altered PH
prerenal hypoperfusion
intrarenal injury to the kidneys
postrenal blockage
CRF elevated BUN, polycystic kidney disease, chronic hypotention
reduced renal reserve 40-75 kidney function
ESRD les than 15 % kidney function
renal insufinionsy 20-40% kidney
RRT Renal replacement therapy
KOlFF first artificial kidney
Cimino-Brescia invented the first fisgula
public law 92-603 SSN act
necheles' invented what? gas heater that controlled dialysis bath
klambers built first dialysis machine
first army doctrine 1988
strep should be checked in childerns HX
nephro toxic diet, led, mercury, moonshine, acetominophine
dry weigh normotensive
diffusion deals with movement of solutes
osmosis movement of water
dialysis is quick and efficent
disease passed from one person to another communicable
HBsAB antiboties
HBsAG you have hepitites B
HCsAG you have hepitites C
JC cell carry renin
renin from the kidney turnes into angotensin I they II in the lungs
renal systen regulates BP aldosterone system, renin
aldosterone tells the kidneys to hold on to salt increasing the blood pressure
glomerular filtrate goes to the bowmans capsule 125 ml/min
ARF 4 stages 1 2 3 4
ARF is cause by Hypoperfusion, Hypovolemia, hypotention
3 stages of ARF oliguria, diuretic phase, recovery phase
CRF stage 1 60-89% GRF
CRF stage 2 30-60% GRF
CRF stage 3 15-30% GRF
CRF stage 4 0-15% GRF = ESRD
causes of CRF excessive hyperglycemia and hypertention
GFR should be between 85-105 ml/min
ARF GFR less than 60 ml/min
filtered by the kidneys Hydrogen ions, urea, creatinine= HUC
the kidneys secrete erithropoiten
at age 65 you loose 3 % every year
at age 85 you only retain about 50% of kidney function
Created by: SGT WEAVER
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