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ch20 The Heart

keywords of the heart

pulmonary circuit carries blood to and from the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs
systemic circuit transports blood to and from the rest of the body
arteries blood is carried away fro the heart by.... or efferent vessels
veins returns blood to the heart
capillaries small, thin-walled vessels called.... interconnect the smallest arteries and the smallest veins.
exchange vessels also called capillaries because their thin walls permit the exchange of nutrients, dissolbed gases, and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues
Right atrium receives blood from the systemic circuit and passes it to the right ventricle
Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary circuit
Left atrium collects blood from the pulmonary circuit and empties it into the left ventricle
Left ventricle ejects blood into the systemic circuit
coranary sulcus a deep groove, marks the border between the atria and the ventricles
marks boundary between the left and right ventricles anterior interventricular sulcus and the posterior interventriucular sulcus
epicardium is the pericardium that covers the outer surface of the heart
Myocardium or muscular wall of the heart, forms both atria and ventricles
endocardium the inner surface of the heart including those of the heart valves, are covered by the ...
cardiac muscles are interconnected by intercalated disc
Interatrial septum the ventricles are seperated by much thicker interventricula
Atriaventricular valves folds of fibrous tissue, estend into the openings between the atria and ventricles
automaticity or autorhythmicity, cardiac muscle tissue contracts on its own in the absence of nueral of hormonal stimulation
conducting system the cells responsible for intiating and distrubitng the stimulus to contract are part of the hearts...
Sinoatrial node(SA node) is embedded in the posterior wall of the right atrium, near the entrance of the superior vena cava. also known as the cardiac pacemaker or natural pacemaker
atrioventricular node sits within the floor of the right atrium near the opening of the coronary sinus
AV bundle Also called, bundle of His, is the only electrical connection between the atria and the ventricles
Purkinje fibers conduct action potential at a very rapidly, as fast as myelanited axons
electrocardiogram(ECG or EKG) electrical events occuring in the heart are powerful enough to be detected by electrodes on the surface of the body.
P wave accompanies the depolarization of the atria.
QRS complex appears as the ventricles depolarize
T waves indicates ventricular repolarization
P-R intervals extends from the start of atrial depolarization to the start of the QRS complex rather into R, because of abnormal ECG's the peak can be difficult to determine
Cardiac arrhythmias abnormal paters of cardiac electrical activity
contractile cells the purkinje fibers distribute the stimulus to the .........
cardiac cycle period between the start of one heartbeat and the beginning of the next is a single.........
systole or contraction, the chamber contracts and pushes blood into an adjacent chamber or into an arterial trunk
diastole or relaxation, the chamber fills with blood and prepares for the next cardiac cycle
end-diastolic volume EDV, the maxium amount of blood that a ventricle will hold
cardiodynamics the movement and forces generated during cardiac contractions
cardiac output the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute
cardiac acceleratory center controls sympathetic neurons that increase the heart rate
cardioinhibitory center controls the parasympathetic neurons that slow the heart rate
atrial reflex Bainbridge reflex, involves adjustments in heart rate in response to an increase in the venous return
afterload is the amount of tension the contracting ventricle must produce to force open the semilunar valve and eject blood.
cardiac reserve the difference between resting and maximal cardiac outputs
The righ Atrium recieves blood from the systemic circuit through the two great veins, superior vena cava and inferior vena cava
cardiac veins of the heart return blood to the coronary sinus
coronary sinus a large thin walled vein that opens into the right atrium inferior to the connection with the superior vena cava
fossa ovalis a small shallow depression, persists at the site in the adult heart
pectinate muscles the anterior artrial wall and the inner surface of the auricle contain prominent muscular ridges called ........
Right atrioventricular vavle three fibrous flaps or cusps also known as tricuspid
chordae tendineae the free edge of each cusp is attached to tendinous connective-tissue fibers called .....
papillary muscles conical muscular projections that arise from the inner surface of the right ventricle
trabeculae carnea the internal surface of the ventricle also contains a series of muscular ridges....
moderator band is a muscular ridge that extends horizontally from the inferior protion of the interventricular septum and connects to the anterior papillary muscle
conus arteriousus a conical pouch that ends at the pulmonary vavle
Mitral valve also known as bicuspid valve
fibrous skeleton of the heart consists of four dense bands of tough elastic tissue that encircle the bases of the pulmonary trunk and aorta and the heart valves
Created by: mskap2