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Second Language Acquisition & Instructional Practices

Social interactionist model (p.44) relationship of newborn with caregiveers; child will learn to speak in manner and syntax of those who speak to him; knowledge of world and linguistic context gives tools to understand language
Social interactionists (p.44) child will begin to establish goals in world and will need to devise linguistic strategies for achieving them; draw on utterances he heard and combine with other knowledge
Microprocesses (p.44) most basic reading functions in ESL; S group words and ideas within sentences into units of meaning, pick what's important; word-by-word
Difficulties in microprocesses confused by idiomatic expressions; Improve: choral reading and marking sentences
Integrative processes (p.44) ability to identity relationships btwn clauses and sentences at the multiple-sentence and paragraph level of complexity; notice pronoun substitutions, infer cause/effect, identify synonym substitutions, recognize conjunctions
Difficulties in integrative processes (p.44) difficulties with complex and compound sentences; likely to lose meaning of references with pronouns; Improve: close reading of sentences and paragraphs, sentence transformation
Macroprocesses (p.45) relating small chunks of text to whole text and organizing sections of text; understand elements of story structure, expository text structure, poetic formulas, various literary genres
Difficulties in macroprocesses (p.45) varying reading strategy to align with author's intent, unfamiliar with structures of genres; Improve: outline and summarize paragraphs, guided questions, identify functions of paragraphs
Elaborative processes (p.45) extending literal comprehension to an understanding of author's intent and themes; make personal connections with what they read, prior knowledge, make predictions, identify characters and understand emotional responses
Difficulties in elaborative processes (p.45) identifying themes, differing expectations and cultural norms miss intent, cause and effect; Improve: background knowledge, connect to S lives, graphic organizers, representations of characters, setting, plot, explicitly describe cultural values in lit
William Labov (p.45) sociolinguist; established African-American Vernacular English as a legitimate dialect; AAVE has own internal grammatical and syntactical rules; speakers now instructed in manner similar to ELLs
Josua Fishman (p.45) sociolinguist; concentrated on evolution of languages; focused on Gaelic, Yiddish, and Welsh; describes societal forces that cause languages to thrive or disappear; advocate for survival of obscure languages, the most important artifacts of a culture
Soliciting cultural information (p.45) T cannot be expected to have familiarity with each student's culture; should know how to acquire degree of familiarity; family visits, music, film, lit, internet
Print concept instruction (p.46) extra help with print concepts; not all languages are alphabetic; Alphabetic language distinguished by how regular the correspondence is btwn symbol and sound (transparent vs. opaque)
Improving fluency (p.46) extra instruction in intonation, phrasing, syntax, punctuation; Improve: movies in Eng
Phonemic instruction for ELL (p.46) likely that most of Eng phonemes are present in L1; consult a reference for new phonemes for extra instruction
Problems learning phonics (p.47) "habits of listening" - difficult to identify subtle variations in how Eng letters are pronounced; Improve: rhymes and word families
Challenges of ESL content-area instruction (p.47) differences in culture, background knowledge, idiomatic expressions, regional dialects, structure, figurative language, unorthodox sentence structures, literary analysis, literal-mindedness with imagery and symbolism, opinions and reactions
Challenges in Mathematics (p.47) print numbers differently, use comma and decimal point differently, don't understand manipulatives, word problems, jargon; used to mental math; no experience with geometry or algebra
Challenges in Science (p.48) much more interactive than in other countries, not comfortable thinking independently, new vocabulary, overwhelming, unfamiliar with diagrams and lab equipment, sentence structure
Challenges in Social Studies (p.48) very little or absolutely zero background knowledge, memorize but lose information, ignorant of vocabulary, not used to expressing personal opinions, topics like democratic rights foreign, overwhelming amount of text covered
Challenges of teaching vocabulary (p.48) differentiated instruction: explicit connection btwn prior and new knowledge, mastered concepts but won't yet have Eng words, capitalize on cognates, reinforce and build skills, use L1, explicit instruction, visual aids, morphological knowledge
Created by: hlywakai
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