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Digestive System

7th grade vocabulary related to the digestive system

Nutrient Substances your body needs that are provided by food (ex. carbohydrates, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals)
Calorie A measure of the amount of energy contained in food. (With a little c it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree Celsius.)
Carbohydrate Nutrients made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that provide energy for your body. Simple - sugars (fruit, candy) Complex - starches (bread, pasta)
Glucose The type of sugar your body changes other sugars into for use in respiration to release energy.
Fat Nutrient made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with twice the energy of carbohydrates. Unsaturated - most oils (usually liquid at room temperature) Saturated - egg yolk, milk fat (usually solid at room temperature) *worse for your body
Protein Nutrients containing nitrogen and carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. Used as building blocks (amino acids) for cells. (ex. meat, fish, nuts, beans)
Mechanical Digestion The process that breaks down food into smaller pieces. (physical change: biting, chewing, stomach contractions)
Chemical Digestion The process that breaks down food into usable nutrients. (chemical change: stomach acid and enzymes)
Absorption The process that happens in the small intestine to transfer nutrients to the blood stream.
Enzyme A protein used to speed up a chemical reaction. Used during chemical digestion.
Peristalsis The involuntary contractions of smooth muscle lining the digestive system to keep food moving through.
Bile The enzyme produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder that helps to break up fats during digestion. It's like soap for your insides :-)
Villi The millions of finger shaped structures that cover the folds of the small intestine to increase surface area and help absorption.
Created by: johnsona



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