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ANP 202 Final

Mosaic Evolution Evolutionary Changes take place in stages, not all at once. Thus, we see lots of "intermediate" forms that lack modern characteristics. This makes linking fossil species to descendant ones difficult
Visual Predation Model The view of primate origins that hypothesizes that stereoscopic vision and grasping hands first evolved as adaptations for hunting insects along branches.
Primitive vs Derived Early Hominin Traits Primitive Traits are those that come from older ancestors, Derived Traits are those that are new, recently evolved.
Molecular Dating Estimating the sequence and timing of the divergence of evolutionary lines by genetic analyses.
"Missing Link" Any transitional fossil, especially one connected with human evolution
Molecular Microwear and Diet The more Molecular Microware there is on the teeth, it suggests that the organisms diet consisted or more tough/difficult food to chew, such as hard seeds.
Hominin Adaptive Radiation (East vs South Africa) A process in which organisms diversify rapidly into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available and opens environmental niches. South African sites found first, East African sites more recently.
Models of Bipedalism 1. Tool Use 2. Predator Avoidance 3. Reproduction 4. Temperature Regulation 5. Food Acquisition 6. Bipedal Feeding 7. Aquatic Ape
Brain Size, Diet, and Dental Adaptation
Brain Size, Bipedalism, and Childbirth
Cultural Adaptions and the Archaeological Evidence 1
Cultural Adaptions and the Archaeological Evidence 2
Regional Variation (Africa, Asia, Eruasia) and sites
Evolutionary Dwarfism and the Island Effect Hypothesis that states when you are in an area where resources are scarce, evolutionarily you will adapt by becoming smaller.
Anatomically Modern Humans expansion timeline
Models for the rise of Anatomically Modern Humans
Plesiadapiforms A primate precursor, went extinct during adaptive radiation of mammals 65mya. Specialized for life in trees. Very diverse, including many body sizes, and many dental adaptations.
Proconsul Early Miocene Ape, was a non-specialized quadruped that lived in trees and ate fruit. Diastema allowed jaws to close with big protruding canines. Demonstrates mosaic evolution by having both primitive and derived traits. No tail, monkey limb proportions.
Hominoid All Apes and Humans, both present and past
Hominin Humans and their ancestors following split with Chimpanzees
Hominid Humans and the great apes (thus, not including gibbons)
Paleocene First Primate-like mammals
Eocene First true primates. Later, first anthropoids
Miocene First hominoids. Later, first hominin
Pleistocene Evolution & dispersal of genus Homo, including Anatomically Modern Humans
Holocene Beginning of agriculture through present
Laetoli Footprints and Hominin Association 3.75mya, Show Bipedal characteristics of non-divergent big toe, heel strike, and well developed arch. Time and place suggests Australopithecus afarensis
Oldowan Tradition and Hominin Association Earliest Stone tools, likely used by late Australopithecines, and definitely by early Homo habilis. Simple chipping tools, often associated with processed animal bones.
Acheulean Tradition and Hominin Association Biface Tools, flatter and have straighter sharper sides than Oldowan tools. Require great skill to manufacture. Soft Hammer Percussion, method of manufacture uses softer materials like bone or wood to make the breaks. Associated with Homo Erectus/Ergaster
Levallois Technique and Hominin Association 300 kya, new tool kit, ends are hafted, which means they are able to be tied to a stick to form a spear. Associated with Homo heidelbergensis.
Mousterian Tradition and Hominin Association Similar to homo heidelbergensis tool kit, sites littered with stone tools, and bones of small animals like deer. Suggests they were skilled and organized hunters.
Y-5 Pattern Molars A molar that has 5 points on it, is a characteristic of hominoids
Divergent Big Toe Divergent toes were able to be used to grasp and are opposable. Bipedal creatures do not have a divergent big toe, they have nondivergent as it helps with balance.
Sagittal Crest A ridge of bone running lengthwise along the midline of the top of the skull
Sagittal Keel The Sagittal keel (torus) is a thickening of bone on part or all of the midline of the frontal bone, or parietal bones where they meet along the sagittal suture, or on both bones. Sagittal keels occur in Homo erectus and occasionally Homo heidelbergensis.
Occipital bun A prominent bulge, or projection, of the occipital bone at the back of the skull.
Brain Size Increases over time (Cubic Centimeters) Chimp - 350cc Gorilla - 500cc Graciles - 420-500cc Robusts - 410-530cc H. Habilis - 500-800cc H. Georgicus - 600-780cc H. Erectus - 750-1225cc H. Heidelbergensis - 1200cc Modern Human - 1350cc
Sivapithecus 14-7mya, Diverse genus ranging in size and geographic distribution. Was not a Hominid because it wasn't bipedal. Large, low-cusped molars, thick enamel and massive jaws. Overall shape of skull looks like orangutan.
Sahelantropus tchadensis 6-7mya Primitive Traits: Small Brain Derived Traits: Small Teeth, Large Brow Ridge, Flat Face Possible biped
Orrorin tugenesis 6-5.8mya Primitive Trait: Long Ape-Like Arms Derived Trait: Bipedal Legs Unexpectedly small teeth
Ardipithecus 5.8-4.4mya Primitive Traits: Large Canines (More like Incisors in structure), thin molar enamel, small brain, grasping big toe Derived Features: Bipedal, Shape of some teeth
Australopithecus Afarensis 3.9-2.9mya Primitive Traits: Long Arms, Long curved fingers, chimp sized brain, sexual dimorphism, no evidence of tool use Derived Traits: Reduced canines and moalrs, nondivergent big toe, full time bipedalism.
Robust Australopithecus (Paranthropus) Highly Specialized chewing mechanism, have sagittal crest which are attachments for muscle used during chewing. Massive premolars and molars, small front teeth, non-projecting canines with no diastema
Paranthropus boisei 2.4-1.4mya Now Considered a dead end branch, fully derived robust form
Australopithecus garhi 2.5mya Primitive Traits: Small Brain, Very Large Molars/Premolars, prognathic face with large canines, parallel tooth rows, postorbital constriction Derived Traits: Teeth look more like homo, arm to leg ratios, head not so robust, stone tools used
Australopithecus africanus 3.3-2.5mya Gracile form of "later Australopithecine" Derived from some earlier form (Such as A. afarensis) Originally thought to be direct ancestor of homo
Paranthropus robustus 2.0-1.4mya Suggested to have evolved from A. Africanus, However, close physical resemblance also suggests common origin with P. Boisei
Australopithecus sebida 2mya Primite Traits: Brain Size, Long Upper Limbs, Some Aspects of Tooth Shape Derived Traits: Dental Anatomy, Brain structure, pelvic shape, and features of the hand and feet
Homo habilis 2.33-2mya Primitive Traits: Skeleton, Tooth proportions Derived Traits: Brain Size, Shape of Premolars, Tool use First specimens to have direct association with stone tools.
Homo erectus (asia) 1.8mya-200kya Larger Cranial Capacity, Short and Stocky Stature, Rugged Brow-Ridges, Sagittal Keel
Homo ergaster (africa) 1.8mya-600kya Smaller Cranial Capacity, Tall Stature, Gracile Brow Ridge, more adapted to dry climate than H. erectus
Homo heidelbergensis 400kya-200kya Compared to Ergaster, Heidelbergensis is more modern having a substantially larger brain, more vertical and higher foreheads, and a more rounded back of skull. Created the Levallois Technique
Homo floresiensis 74-61kya, and 18-16kya 3 feet tall, very small brain (385-417cc), primitive features include very long arms and unarched feet. Despite the primitive features, clearly a branch of H. erectus. Affected by "evolutionary dwarfism"
Homo neanderthalensis 600-530kya Large Brains, more Rounded Crania, Big Faces, Small back teeth, large front teeth. Distinct Features: Heavily Muscled, Thick bones, Shorter and Stockier than us
Homo sapiens Us :3
Australopithecus Anamensis 4.2-3.9mya Primitive Traits: Large canines, parallel toothrows, Prognathic face, small ear holes Derived Traits: Larger teeth with thicker enamel, bipedalism.
Gracile Australopithecus Large Faces, not as large as Panthropus, no sagittal crests, large incisors.
Tool Use Model Suggests increasing brain size and reliance on tools led to bipedalism. Problems: Fossil record shows bipedalism rose first
Predator Avoidance Model Suggests need to spot and avoid predators led to bipedalism Problems: Bipedalism not needed for this task, Bipedalism increases chances of predators spotting you
Reproduction Model Suggests the need for more efficient transport of babies and greater ease of transporting food led to bipedalism Problems: Can't really be tested. Sexual behavior does not leave behind a fossil record.
Temperature Regulation Model Suggests that upright posture reduces the amount of sunlight that strikes the body during the hottest part of day, which led to us becoming bipedal. Problems: Other animals in the savanna aren't bipedal. They just wisely avoid the midday sun.
Food Acquisition Model Suggests that having free hands allows individuals to transport food, especially useful for moving across the open savanna. Problems: Primates generally feed at food source
Bipedal Feeding Hypothesis Suggests bipedalism first arose to increase efficiency of standing while feeding
Created by: Bishxc
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