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The Blood ch 19

keywords for functions and composition of Blood

QuestionAnswer
Formed elements blood cells and cell fragments that are suspended in plasma
Red Blood cells (RBC) or erythrocytes, are the most abundant blood cells
White blood cells or Leukocytes, are cells involved with the body's defense mech.
Globulins 35% of the proteins in plasma
Antibodies or immunoglobulins, attack foreign proteins and pathogens
Transport globulins bind small ions, hormones or compounds that might otherwise be lost at the kidneys or have very low solublity in water
Fibrinogen functions in clotting
Fibrin these fibers provide the basic framework for a blood clot
Hematocrit the percentage of whole blood occupied by cellular elements
Erythropoiesis red blood cell formation, occurs only in red bone marrow, or myeloid tissue
Stages of RBC Maturation Proerythroblast (d1), Basophilic erthroblast (d2), Polychomatophili erythroblast (d3) Normoblast (d4), Reticulocyte(d5-7), mature cell
Erythorpoietin EPO or erythopoiesis-stimulating hormone, is a glycoprotein that apears in the plasma when peripheral tissues, especially the kidneys, are exposed to low oxygen levels
Hypoxia low tissue levels of oxygen
Surface antigens substance that your immune system recognizes as normal rather than attacking them as foriegn
Blood type a classification determined by the presence or absence of a specific surface antigen in the Rbc membrane
Agglutinogens surface antigens of RBC
Type A Blood has surface antigens A only
Type B blood has surface antigens B only
Type AB has both A & B antigens
Type O has neither A or B antigens
RH positive indicates the presence of the Rh surface antigen, called the RH factor
RH negative indicates the absence of the RH factor
Neutrophils this name reflects the fact that the granules of these WBC's are chemically neutral and thus are difficult to stain witheither acidic or basic dyes
Basophils have numerous granules that stain darkly with basic dyes,migrate to injury sites and cross the capillary endothelium to accumulate in the dammaged tissue
Monocytes spherical cells, remains in blood stream for about 24 hrs before entering perpheral tissues to become a tissue macrophage
Lymphocytes continuely migrate from bloodstream to peripheral tissue back to blood stream.
T Cells responsible for cell-mediated immunity, a defense mechanism against invading foreign cells
B Cells responsible for humoral immunity, a defense mechanism that involves the production and distribution of anitbodies. which inturn attack foreign antigens
NK Cells natural killer cells, responsible for immune surveillance, the detection and subsequent destruction of abnormal tissue cells
leukopenia indicates inadequate numbers of WBC
Red Blood Cells Transport oxygen from lungs to tissue and carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs
Neutrophils Phagocytic: Engulf pathogens or debris in tissues, release cytotoxic enzymes and chemicals
Eosinophils Phagocytic: Engulf antibody-labeled materials, release cytotoxic enzymes reduce inflammation
Basophils Enter damaged tissues and release histamine and other chemicals that promote inflammation
Monocytes Enter tissues to become macrophages: engulf pathogens or debris
Lymphocytes Cells of Lymphatic system providing defense against specific pathogens or toxins
Platelets Hemostasis: Clump together and stick to vessel wall; activate intrinsic pathway of coagulation phase
Platelet Functions Transport of chemicals Important to the clotting process, Formation of a temporary patch in the walls of damaged blood vessels, Active contaction after clot formation
Hemostatsis the cessation of bleeding , prevents the loss of blood throughthe walls of damaged vessels.
Vascular Phase Decrases the diameter of the vessel at the site of injury
Platelet Phase begin to attach to sticky endothelial surfaces, to basil lamina and to exposed collagen fibers
Platelet adhesion attachment of platelets to exposed surfaces
Platelet plug may close the break in the vessel wall if the damage is not severe or the vessel is relatively small
Extrinsic Pathway begins with the release of Factor III, (tissue factor), by damged endothelial cells or peripheral tissues.
Intrinsic Pathways begin with the activation of prenzymes exposed to collagen fibers at the injury site
Created by: mskap2