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endocrine syst. ch18

keywords for the endocrine system

Pacracrine communication use of chemical messengers to transfer infromation from cell to cell within a single tissue
Hormones chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to reach specific cells in other tissues.
endocrine communication use of hormones to coordinate cellular activities in tissues in distant protions of the body
endocrine system includes all the endocrine cells and tissues of the body which produce hormones or pacrine factors rthat have effects beyond their tissue of origin
Amino Acid Derivatives are relatively small molecules that are structurally similiar to amino acids, sometimes known as biogenic amines
Biogenic amines include epinephrine, nrepinephrine, dopamine, the thyroid hormones and melatonin
Melatonin manufactured from molecules of the amino acid Tryptophan
Peptide Hormones are chains of amino acids, also produced as prohormones
prohormones inactive molecules that are converted to active hormones either before or after they are secreted
Lipid derivatives, two classes steroid hormones derived from cholesterol, and eicosanoids, derived form arachidonic acid
Steriod Hormones released by male and female reproductive organs, and the adrenal glands and the kidneys
Eicosanoids small molecules with a 5-carbon ring at one end. also important pacrine factors that coordinate cellular activities and affect enzymatic processes that occur in extracellular fluind
Leukatrienes released by activate white blood cells, are important in coordinating tissue responses to injury or disease
Prostaglandins produced in most tisues of the body, involved in coordinating local cellular acitvies
G Protein an enzyme complex coupled to a membrane receptor. Refers to the fact the this protein binds to GTP
Kinase an enzyme that performs phosphorylation, the attachment of a phospahte group to another molecule
Endocrine reflexes can be triggered by 1. humoral stimuli 2. hormonal stimuli 3. nerual stimuli
the adrenal medullae secret E and NE in response to action potential rather than circulatinf hormones
Pulses several hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland are released in sudden bursts
When hormones arrive in pulses target cells may vary their response with frequency
Diaphragma sellae the pituitary gland is cradled by the sella turcia and held in position by the ....
adenohypophysis anterior lobe of pituitary gland
3 regions of the adenohypophysis pars distalis, pars tuberalis, pars intermedia
par distalis the largest and most anterior portion of the pituitary gland
pars tuberalis wraps arond the adjeacent portion of the infundibulum
pars intermedia forms a narrow band bordering the posterior lobe
Fenestrated capillaries allow relatively large molecules to enter or leave the circulatory system
Superior hypohyseal artery supplies the capillary networks in the median eminence
Portal vessels blood vessels that link two capillary networks
2 classes of hypothalamic regulatory hormones 1) releasing hormones 2) inhibitiing hormones
Releasing hormone (RH) stimulates the synthesis and secretion of one or more hormones at the anterior lobe
inhibiting hormones (IH) prevent the synthesis and secretion of hormones at the anterior lobe
Thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH) or Thyrotropin, target the thyroid gland and triggers the release of thyroid hormones
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or Corticotropin, stimulates the release of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex
Gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are called... because they regulate the activities of the gonads
Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) or follitropin, promotes follicle development in females and stimulates sustentacular cells in males
sustentacular cells specialixed cells in the tubules where sperm differentiate
Luteinizing hormones (LH) or lutropin, induces ovulation in females,
Growth Hormone (GH) or somatotroping, stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating the rate of protein synthesis
Liver cells respond to the presence of GH by synthesizing and releasing somatomedians, or insuinlike growth factors (IGFs)
GH stimulates stem cell division and the differentiation of daughter cells in epithelia and connective tissue
GH stimulates the breakdown fo stored trglycoerides by adipocytes , which then release fatty acids int the blood stream in adipose tissue
thyroid follicles spheres lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium
Follicle cells synthesize a globular protein called thyroglobulin and secretes it into the colloid of the thryoid follicles
major factor controlling the rate of thyroid hormone release concentration of TSH in the circulating blood
If intracellular levels of thyroid hormones decline the bound thyroid hormones are released into the cytoplasm
Thyroid hormones binding to mitochondria increase the rates of mitchondrial ATP production
Tetraiodothyronine represents T4, or thyroxine which contains 4 iodide ions
Triidothyronine represents T3, contains 3 iodide ions
Thyroid-binding globulins (TBGs) a transport molecule, 75%of T4 and 70% T3 enter the blood stream attached to transport proteins called
Cheif Cells monitor the circulating concentration of calcium ions in the parathyroid glands
Adrenal Gland yellow, pyramid-shaped, sits on the superior border of each kidney
Adrenal Cortex yellowish color is due to the presence of stored lipids, especially cholesterol and various fatty acids
Corticosteriods more than two dozen steriod hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex are called.....
Zona Glomerulosa outer most region of the adrenal cortex, produces mineralocorticoids
mineralocorticoids steroid hormones that affect the electrolye composition of body fluids
Aldosterone the principal minerocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex
Zona Fasciculata produces steroid hormones collectively known as glucocorticoids
Zona Reticularis forms a narrow band bordering each adrenal medulla , the endocrine cells form a folded, branching network, and fenestrated blood vessels wind between cells
This combination increases both muscular strength and endurance. E and NE Trigger a mobilization of glycogen reserves in skeletal muscle and accelerate the breakdown of glucose to provide ATP
Pineal Gland part of epithalamus, lies in the posterior protion of the roof of the third ventricle
the Pineal Glad contains neors, neuroglia, and special secretory cells called pinealocytes
Pinealocytes synthesize hormone melatonin form molecules of the nerotransmitter serotonin
Pancreas lies within the abdominopelvic cavity in the J-shaped loop between the stomach and the small intestine
Exocrine pancreas consists of clusters of gland cells, called pancreatic acini, and their attached ducts
Endocrine pancreas consist of small groups of cells scattered among the exocrine cells
Pancreatic islets or ISLETS OF LANGERHANS, endocrine clusters
Alpha cells produce the horm. glucagon.
Glucagon raises blood glucose levels by incrasing the rates of glycogen breakdown and glucose release by the liver
Beta cells produce the Horm. insulin
Insulin lower blood glucose levers by increasing the rate of glucose uptake and utilization by most body cells
Created by: mskap2