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Heme review no onc

Clinical Medicine

Jak2 mutation is seen in polycythemia Vera (70%)
Post bath pruritus occurs with polycythemia Vera*
Tear-drop shaped RBC’s on peripheral smear Myelofibrosis*
Most common leukemia is CLL*
Smudge cells (damaged lymphocytes) on peripheral smear CLL*
BCR-ABL gene mutation on peripheral blood is diagnostic of CML*
Philadelphia chromosome is diagnostic of CML*
Blasts are seen in these types of leukemias acute leukemias
leukemias Primarily in children ALL
leukemias Primarily in adults AML
Auer Rods occur in Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)*
"Painless lymphadenopathy, think" lymphoma
B symptoms of cancer include "Fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue"
Reed-Sternberg’s cell occur in Hodgkin’s lymphoma*
most common Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is Nodular sclerosing
found in 40-50% of cases of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma EBV
Lymph node pain after ingestion of alcohol think of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
"Lytic lesions on bones, pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia" Multiple Myeloma*
Rouleaux formation on peripheral blood smears Multiple Myeloma
M-spike on electrophoresis Multiple Myeloma
Bence –Jones proteins occur in Multiple Myeloma*
Multiple Myeloma do this Skeletal survey (not a Bone scan)*
classic triad for Multiple Myeloma "Plasmacytosis, lytic bone lesions, serum/urine M-protein*"
Classic hemophilia (Hemophilia A) is due to a deficiency of which clotting factor: VIII*
"In a patient with increased platelets and white blood cells, splenomegaly, and an increased red blood cell mass, you would suspect" polycythemia vera*
failure to maintain hemostasis Hemorrhage
failure to maintain fluidity Thrombosis
collective term for all physiologic mechanisms the body uses to protect itself from blood loss Hemostasis
Intrinsic pathway is evaluated by PTT
Extrinsic pathway factors include Factor 7
Extrinsic pathway is evaluated by PT
Common pathway is evaluated by PT & PTT
most common congenital disorder of hemostasis von Willebrand's disease*
von Willebrand's disease is what type of genetic disorder autosomal dominant
This factor mediates platelet adhesion von Willebrand factor (vWF)
Treatment for von Willebrand's disease DDAVP (Desmopressin acetate) or vWF-containing Factor VIII concentrate
ITP stands for idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura
HIT stands for heparin induced thrombocytopenia
TTP stands for thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura
Most common drug induced coagulation disorder Heparin induced thrombocytopenia
Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia & thrombocytopenia without an identifiable cause Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Treatment for Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura Plasmapheresis + IV fresh frozen plasma infusion
"anemia with schistocytes, thrombocytopenia & renal dysfunction in the absence of other causes of coagulopathy" Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome*
Most common finding in Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Renal failure & thrombocytopenia*
distinguish DIC from HUS DIC would have decreased Fibrinogen levels
With HUS do not give "Antibiotics, platelet transfusion or nephrotoxic drugs"
Primary lesion of DIC is clot formation
Bleeding & thrombosis co-exist in this clotting disorder DIC
Subacute DIC in cancer pts – throwing small clots- DVTs Trousseau’s syndrome*
Most common severe bleeding disorder Hemophilia A*
Hemophilia A is what type of genetic disorder "X linked inheritance, only males are affected*"
Treat hemophilia A with "Factor VIII replacement, DDAVP for mild disease"
Christmas Disease Hemophilia B*
Hemophilia B is what type of genetic disorder "X linked recessive, only males affected (more rare than hemophilia A)"
Treat hemophilia B with Factor IX concentrates (avoid DDAVP and asprin)
Factor IX deficiency Hemophilia B*
Factor XI Deficiency Hemophilia C*
Hemophilia C is seen what type of genetic disorder and seen in what race Autosomal recessive (affects males and females equally) & seen in Ashkenazi Jews
Treat Hemophilia C with FFP (fresh frozen plasma) PRN
site of synthesis of all coagulation factors except factor VIII Liver*
Liver is the site of synthesis of all coagulation factors except factor VIII
These are considered “natural anticoagulants” Proteins C & S
Diagnosis for Vitamin K deficiency only shows "5 is normal, 7 is low"
Diagnosis for Liver disease only shows both 5 & 7 are low
What is the most common causes of hereditary hemophilia? Hemophilia A
Define Antithrombin III deficiency Deficiency allows unopposed conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
Coagulation disorder that presents with spontaneous thrombo-embolic events (mainly venous) Antithrombin III deficiency
Virchow’s Triad is Vascular damage; Hypercoagulability and Circulatory stasis*
Polycythemia Vera Treatment includes Therapeutic Phlebotomy
Chronic and progressive fibrosis of the bone marrow leading to marrow failure Myelofibrosis
what is the only curative treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Allogeneic transplant
Describe Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Clonal proliferation of B-cell lymphocytes
What are smudge cells damaged lymphocytes*
Myeloproliferative disease of bone marrow stem cells resulting in unregulated growth of granulocytes Chronic Myelogeneous Leukemia (CML)
It is the only known curative treatment for CML Allogeneic Transplant
Characterized by unrestrained growth of leukocytes and leukocyte precursors (blasts) in the tissues. Acute leukemias
"clumps of myeloblasts, seen in AML" Auer rods
Heterogeneous group of cancers that arise from lymphocytes Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
"Diffuse or isolated, painless, lymphadenopathy" Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
This disease refers to a group of cancers characterized by enlargement of lymphoid tissue Hodgkin’s Disease
"Painless cervical, supraclavicular, and mediastinal adenopathy" Hodgkin’s Disease
Malignancy of plasma cells which leads to progressive bone marrow failure and infiltration of bone. Multiple Myeloma
"These may be present in bones thus predisposing patients to bone pain, pathologic fractures, and hypercalcemia." Lytic lesions
BRCA genes are associated with Breast and ovarian cancer*
Positive direct coombs test Autoimmune hemolysis
Tear-drop shaped RBC’s on peripheral smear Myelofibrosis
MCC of anemia in kids Iron deficiency*
Pica is common with Iron deficiency*
"Decreased platelet count in an otherwise healthy child, oven after a viral infection, think" ITP
Most common solid tumor outside the CNS in peds Neuroblastoma (abdominal tumor)*
In macrocytic anemia the MCV is Greater than 100*
Hemolytic disease of the newborn/ fetal hydrops Erythroblastosis fetalis
Most frequent cause of anemia in cancer patients Inadequate erythropoietin
MCV < 80 Microcytic anemia
MCV > 100 Macrocytic anemia
Microcytic anemias include "Iron deficiency, thalassemia & anemia of chronic disease"
Target cells are seen in all anemias
Macrocytic anemias include Vitamin B 12 deficiency & folate deficiency
Anemia that presents with paresthesias early then gait disturbances Vitamin B 12 deficiency
ITP is most common in what age group Childhood
Failure of all cell lines suggest Aplastic anemia
Poor dietary intake of iron causes Anemia
Bence jones proteins Multiple myeloma
Earliest and best indicator of iron deficiency Serum ferritin*
Type of anemia associated with gastric cancer Pernicious anemia
Positive schillings test Vitamin B 12 deficiency
Heinz bodies are seen in G6PD deficiency*
Positive coomb’s test Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Most common inherited bleeding disorder Von willebrand’s disease*
Factor VIII Hemophilia A*
Factor IX Hemophilia B / Christmas disease*
Factor XI Hemophilia C / Rosenthal syndrome*
AE of Cisplatin "Renal impairment, auditory neuropathy"
AE of adriamycin Cardiac toxicity
AE of vincristine Peripheral neuropathy
AE of Bleomycin Pulmonary toxicity
Created by: duanea00