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FNS 5: Limbic

Neuro Lecture 5: Limbic System + Emotion

Where is the amygdala located? deep to the uncus (a surface feature on the rostral part of the paraventricular gyrus)
What are the 2 major macrostructures of the amygdala? 1) Basal-lateral nuclear complex and 2) Centromedial complex
Which of the 2 major macrostructures of the amygdala is the primary input center? Basal-lateral nuclear complex
How many nuclei does the Basal-lateral nuclear complex include? several
Where does the Basal-lateral nuclear complex receive sensory input from? thalamus, cortex, and limbic cortical regions (PFC, orbitofrontal)
How many nuclei does the Centromedial complex include? Name them. 2- central and medial nuclei
Which of the 2 major macrostructures of the amygdala is the primary output center? Centromedial complex
Where does the Centromedial complex have connections to? HT and several brainstem regions of autonomic function
Where does the Central group receive input from? Project to? input from basal-lateral group, projects to HT and brainstem ‘effector’ areas
Where do Medial group interconnections go to? Olfactory areas (bulb, cortex)
Where does the Basal-lateral Group receive extensive input from? limbic and sensory cortical areas
Name the 2 major fiber bundles that connect the amygdala with subcortical regions. 1) Stria terminalis, and 2) Ventral Amygdalofugal Pathway
What is the other name for the Ventral Amygdalofugal Pathway? Ventral Amygdaloid Pathway
Where does the Stria terminalis exit the amygdala? the posterior portion
Where does the Stria terminalis course/run? takes a C-shaped course along the medial aspect of caudate nucleus, and courses downward at the level of the anterior commissure to enter the hypothalamus
Where does the Ventral Amygdalofugal Pathway exit the amygdala? the dorsomedial part
Where does the Ventral Amygdalofugal Pathway run/course? runs beneath the globus pallidus and into the hypothalamus
Which amygdala connection provides information about the external environment, including possible threats? olfactory system, limbic association cortex, prefrontal cortex
Which amygdala connection allows the amygdala to influence visceral, autonomic, and behavioral output? hypothalamus, brainstem, dorsal/ventral striatum
Which amygdala connection allows for memory formation? Hippocampal formation and parahippocampal gyrus
Which amygdala connection also allows for memory formation and allows an indirect influence over the prefrontal cortex? Mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus
Which amygdala connections allow for neuromodulatory control? basal forebrain (ACh), brainstem regions like ventral tegmental area (DA), locus coeruleus (NE), and raphe nuclei (5-HT)
What is the main function of the amygdala? recognition of the emotional salience of stimuli- impart emotional content to memory formation
When a stimulus is emotionally-salient, what general systems can be affected by the amygdala? endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses
Under which type of stimuli are amygdala functions most evident? fearful situations
Which type of drugs act on the amygdala to inhibit fear responses? Anxiolytic drugs, like benzodiazepines
Does classical fear conditioning require protein synthesis? Yes
What, besides the classical fear conditioning model, is another form of learning that requires protein synthesis? Extinction
What happens when a weak neutral stimulus is paired with a strong primary reinforcer? the weak input is strengthened in a Hebbian-like manner- it may acquire the ability to activate amygdalar pathways that evoke emotional/physiological responses
What do NMDA glutamate antagonists do? block the Hebbian-like association of a neutral stimulus with a strong primary reinforcer (Pavlov fear, etc.), AND prevent LTP
What is the anatomical description of Urbach-Wiethe disease? bilateral calcification and atrophy of anterior-medial temporal lobe structures (including amygdala), while sparing the hippocampus
What were the symptoms of patient S.M.? impaired recognition of fear faces, impaired conditioned autonomic/visceral responses to fearful stimuli, but preserved declarative recall of CS/US pairings
What are CS? US? Controlled stimulus (neutral) and Uncontrolled stimulus (primary reinforcer)
What is the example of acquired forms of amygdalar damage? Kluver-Bucy syndrome
How was Kluver-Busy syndrome first produced/seen? in monkeys by lesioning the medial temporal lobe (including the amygdala) in 1939
What are 3 symptoms of Kluver-Busy syndrome? Loss of fear/aggression, Hyperorality, and Inappropriate sexual behaviors- in humans, all symptoms are rare-most common presentation is emotional (fear) recognition deficits
Where does ACh come from? basal forebrain
Where does DA come from? ventral midbrain (ventral tegmental area)
Where does 5-HT come from? raphe nuclei
Where does NE come from? locus ceruleus
Are neuromodulatory pathways distinct or diffuse? diffuse- project to many limbic regions, often by poorly-defined pathways
Do neuromodulatory transmitter systems “drive” limbic circuitry or just modulate it? modulate interactions
Where do cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain project to? hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex
What (in general) is ACh important for? cognitive function (attention, learning, memory)
Which types of neurons are lost in AD earliest/most consistently? cholinergic
Which types of neurons are the targets of some cognitive enhancers used to treat AD? What’s an example of such a drug? cholinergic- donezepil; 4/5 FDA-approved drugs for AD are ACh-esterase inhibitors
Where do DA neurons in ventral midbrain project to? limbic and cortical regions
What (in general) is DA important for? motivated behavior and reward
Which NT is implicated in reinforcing and addictive properties of psychostimulant drugs? DA
Which NT is implicated in certain neuropsychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia? DA
What is blocked by amphetamine, meth, and cocaine? DA reuptake
What is blocked by antipsychotic drugs? DA receptors
Where do 5-HT neurons in the raphe nuclei project to? almost all limbic and cortical regions
What (in general) is 5-HT involved in? modulating mood and affect
Which types of disorders is 5-HT involved in? depression, anxiety, and OCD
Which types of drugs are used to treat 5-HT disorders? SSRIs
Where do NE neurons from the locus coeruleus and lateral tegmentum project to? widespread projections to cortical and limbic regions
What (in general) is NE involved in? arousal, wakefulness, attention
Drugs target activation of psychostimulant drugs (amphetamine, cocaine), but not rewarding properties by affecting which NT? NE
What type of disorders is NE involved with? mood disorders
Older antidepressants elevate ___ levels by blocking reuptake or preventing extracellular enzyme degradation. NE
What are the older antidepressants that block NE reuptake called? tricyclics
What are the older antidepressants that prevent NE extracellular enzyme degradation? MAO inhibitors (monoamine oxidase)
Created by: mbyess
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