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FNS 4: Limbic

Neuro Lecture 4: Limbic System + Emotion

What are the 3 biggest main anatomical/functional structures of the limbic system? Hippocampus, Amygdala, Diffuse Neuromodulatory Transmitter Systems
Where is the Hippocampus in relation to the gross brain? deep to the parahippocampal gyrus (seen on the inferior brain surface) or deep to the medial temporal lobes (in coronal cross section)
What are the 3 related structures of the hippocampal formation? DG, CA, and Sub
What are the subfields of the CA? CA1-CA4 (1 and 3 are most prominent)
As the fornix extends rostrally from the hippocampus, some fibers “peel off” and pass in front of which structure? What do they innervate? in front of the anterior commissure (hence pre-commisural) to innervate the septum
What are the structures (in order) of the hippocampal circuitry? limbic association cortex- parahippocampal gyrus- DG- CA3- CA1- Sub- limbic association cortex/extorhinal cortex/mamillary bodies
What is step 1 in the Trisynaptic Pathway? Name the pathway and the structures it connects Perforant Path connects the parahippocampal gyrus with the dentate gyrus
What is step 2 in the Trisynaptic Pathway? Name the fibers and the structures they connect Mossy fibers connect the dentate gyrus and CA3
What is step 3 in the Trisynaptic Pathway? Name the fibers and the structures they connect Schaeffer Collaterals connect CA3 and CA1
What is the “input” structure of the hippocampal formation? What is the output structure? input= DG, output= Subiculum
What did Donald Hebb (1949) postulate? the cognitive process called LEARNING must have a cellular correlate
What is Hebbian plasticity? a growth/process/metabolic change takes place with learning; the actual brain structure changes with repeated firing
What happened (in Hebb’s study) due to the tetanus? strength of CA3-CA1 connection was enhanced
What is the main or basic function of the hippocampus? formation of new long-term declarative memories
What is a declarative memory? a memory that is available to consciousness and (typically) describable by language
What is a semantic memory? Categorical (what a bicycle looks like)
What is an episodic memory? Narrative (what I did this morning)
What is the possible physiological correlate of memory consolidation? LTP within the trisynaptic pathway
Are non-declarative memories related to hippocampus function? nope! These are acquired skills/associations that are largely unconscious and not describable
What was the purpose of H.M.’s surgery? What did they do? relief of temporal lobe epilepsy by removing most of the medial temporal lobes bilaterally
Was H.M.’s IQ affected by his surgery? no
What was H.M.’s new deficit due to the surgery? severe anterograde amnesia- inability to form new long-term declarative memories
Were H.M.’s memories from before the surgery affected? What does this indicate to us? no- the hippocampus is not where memories are stored
Aging is associated with what overall brain process? Which structures are particularly affected? Atrophy of several brain regions, particularly medial temporal lobes
What *big picture* process is a consistent correlate of age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease? hippocampal atrophy
What statistic of Americans over age 71 have some type of dementia? 1 in 7
What “diagnosis” precedes Alzheimer’s disease? Mild cognitive impairment
What is the first brain region to show neurodegeneration in AD? parts of the hippocampus and associated parts of the temporal lobe cortex
How severe is AD that is associated with widespreas cortical involvement? Moderate-severe
Created by: mbyess
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