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Ocul. A&P Syllabus 2

Terms NOT on Home Study Guide for Ocular A&P #2 Vitreous-Congenital Anomalies

Vitreous Face Near lens
Vitreous Base An area in the fundus of the eye in which the vitreous membrane, neural retina, and pigment epithelium all are firmly adherent, one to the other.
Vitreous Zones Zone I anterior, Zone II mid, Zone III posterior
Cloquet's Canal Central thin canal and former site of hyaloid artery system.
Trichromat Normal color vision. Can see the three primary colors
Dichromat Lacks a pigment type. Colors appear washed out.
Monochromat Suffer from achromatopsia (without color) all rare or uncommon.
Internal Limiting Membrane Anatomical innermost layer of the retina.
Bipolar Cells In bipolar (middle) layer of neural transmission. Acts as connector cable between the photoreceptors and the ganglion cell layer.
Rhodopsin Photopigment of the rods. The pigment responsible for formation of rods and cones and for the perception of light.
Iodopsin Photopigment of the cones.
Nyctalopia Night blindness
Location of Optic Disc 3mm nasal to fovea. CRA and CRV within disc.
Size of Optic Disc 1.7 by 1.9 mm
Normal cup to disc ratio The optic cup is the white, cup-like area in the center of the optic disc. Normal cup to disc ratio is 0.3 If it is more than it suggests glaucoma.
Subarachnoid space of Optic Nerve The subarachnoid space surrounding the optic nerve
Why Vitamin A is important. Needed by the retina of the eye in the form of retinal, which combines with protein opsin to form rhodopsin.
Homonomyous Same VF are of both eyes
Hemianopsia Involves up to 1/2 of VF
Arcuate Scotoma (Bjerrum) An arc-shaped blind area that may develop in the field of vision of a person with glaucoma. It is caused by damage to nerve fibers in the retina.
Enlarged Blind Spot Central - paracentral
Metamorphopsia A defect of vision in which objects appear to be distorted; usually due to a defect in the retina.
Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar)actions Fight or flight, pupillary dilation, dry mouth with stimulation, increased heart rate and blood pressure.
Parasympathetic (Craniosacral)actions Body's resting state, pupillary constriction and accommodation, sweating when stimulated. Slower heart
Nasociliary Nerve V1, Carries sensory information to the tip of the nose. Long ciliary nerves (sensory to ciliary ganglion)and Infratrochlear (anterior and posterior ethmoid nerve).posterior
Trigeminal neuralgia A very painful condition with severe intractable pain in the face is sometimes treated surgically by destroying the trigeminal ganglion, with resultant sensory loss of the cornea.
What 3 nerves pass through the ciliary ganglion? Sensory (V), Sympathetic (Iris dilator), and Parasympathetic (Iris Sphinster).
Mydriasis Dilation of the pupil of the eye.
Acetylcholinesterase An enzyme that serves to stop excitation of a nerve after transmission of an impulse.
Sympathetic NS receptors Alpha 1 and 2, Beta 1 and 2
Degrees of Fusion First Grade- ability to superimpose 2 dissimilar images and perceive them as one. Second- ability to maintain the blending of the images as they move off the fovea. THIRD- Perception of depth (Stereopsis)only useful up to 20 ft. Normal:67 second of arc
Aphakia Absence of crystalline lens. Refractive error is around +12.00D. No ability to accommodate.
Anisometropia Difference in refractive power of 1 D or more between eyes
Binocular Vision Vision using two eyes with overlapping fields of view, allowing good perception of depth.
Histamine Synthesized in mast cells. Once released-itching, tearing, redness, swelling. Prominent in allergy.
Prostaglandins When released from cells, cause dilation of blood vessels and bronchodilator of lungs and increase sensitivity to pain.
Kinins Another type of inflammatory mediator (cytokines, leukotrienes)
Complement Group of proteins in the blood.
Hyaloid Arterial System becomes The Ophthalmic Artery
Albina lacks what? Lack of melanocytes in the iris pigmnent epithelium.
What are "bear tracks"? Multiple areas of grouped congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium
What are anterior and posterior staphyloma? Anterior- bulging of the cornea and anterior chamber. Very uncommon. Posterior- a bulging and thinning of the sclera results in pathological myopia. Common.
Retinoblastoma Is an infantile cancer with rapid growth and seen early in life. High survival rate of 95-98%, Very treatable. Occasionally bilateral. May present as white reflex in the pupil.
Anophthalmia No globe
Location of the congenital polar cataract On the anterior or posterior lens
Aniridia No iris
Scleromalacia Degenerative thinning of the sclera; A very rare ophthalmic manifestation seen in rheumatoid arthritis
Sclera is thinnest under the ____________? Rectus muscle and is the area most likely to rupture.
Endothelium Count when born. 3000-4000 cells/mm2
Corneal Arcus Cholesterol and cholesterol esters. White ring
Corneal Guttata Little areas of collagen that collect abnormally at the back of the eye due to a growth abnormality of the cells at that location. These lumps can interfere with light transmission.
Lamina Cribosa The part of the sclera of the eye penetrated by the fibers of the optic nerve
Sphinster muscle is innervated by the ________________. Parasympathetic NS
Dilator is innervated by the ____________________. Sympathetic NS
What occurs in inflammation, uveitis,etc? Synechia
Iris processes are _____________. Normal
Retinitis Pigmentosa Inherited retinal dystrophy affecting rods, cones, RPE.
What is the leading cause of blindness worldwide? Vitamin A deficiency
What does arcuate mean? Shaped or bent like an arc or bow
Papilledema is _______________. Bilateral
Ciliary Injections signifies ________________ deeper in the eye. Inflammation
Papillitis is on the nerve head. T or F True
Afferent AWAY from organ (eye) to CNS.
Efferent EXITING CNS toward the organ (eye).
When we look at visual fields (VF), keep in mind they are represented as _______________ see them and not as observed by the _______________. Left VF is on our _______ and right VF is on our _______. We (the patient)/ Investigator/ Left/ Right
Created by: Leequa



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