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Ocul. A&P Syllabus 1

Terms NOT on Home Study Guide for Ocular A&P #1 Bones of Orbit to Uvea

Fick's Axis Theoretical center of rotation of the eye is at the intersection of 3 principal axis. The X-axis crosses the eye horizontally; the Y-axis passes through the center of the pupil (through ‘y’ sutures of the lens); and the Z-axis crosses the eye vertically
Herring's Law Law of equal innervation - when an impulse is sent to the EOM of one eye, the corresponding yoke muscle in the other eye is also stimulated.
Sherrington's Law Law of reciprocal innervation (same eye) - in the same eye when one muscle contracts, the antagonist relaxes.
Cycloduction Rotation of the eye around its visual axis.
Angle Kappa The angle between the visual and geometric axis. Is usually slightly "positive" (slightly nasal to the geometric center of the cornea).
Visual (Optic) Axis of Cornea Line "connecting" fovea with the optical center of lens and cornea (to back of globe- macular area). Normally passes just nasal (medial) to the geometric axis
Yoke Muscles Are the primary muscles in each eye that accomplish a given version (eg, for right gaze, the right lateral rectus and left medial rectus muscles).
Bell's Phenomenon When you forcibly close both eyes, globe moves upward and outward (a protective mechanism).
Dermatochalasis Excess skin of the eyelids. Droopy lids
Blepharochalasis Recurrent edema of the lids. Baggy lids.
Puncta An opening through which fluid enters each lacrimal canaliculum.
Lacrimal Lake The lacrimal lake is the pool of tears in the lower conjunctival cul-de-sac, which drains into the opening of the tear drainage system.
Orbital Septum Is a membranous sheet that acts as the anterior boundary of the orbit. It extends from the orbital rims to the eyelids. It forms the fibrous portion of the eyelids.
Canaliculi (Vert., Horiz., Common) Also known as lacrimal ducts, these tube-like structures carry the tears from the eyes to the lacrimal sac. Vertical is 2mm lower one, Horizontal is 8mm upper and Common is where they meet before going into Nasolacrimal sac.
Nasolacrimal Sac Either of the two dilated ends of the lacrimal ducts at the nasal ends of the eyes that fill with tears secreted by the lacrimal glands
Nasolacrimal Duct A duct that carries tears from the lacrimal sac to the nasal cavity
Pinqueculae "Normal" occurrence on the conjunctiva. Opaque, slightly elevated mass of conjunctival tissue, which does NOT invade the cornea. May be yellowish (fat) or become inflamed (hyperemic). Does not grow on the cornea or require surgery.
Conjunctival pH Same as tear film 7.4
Epicanthus A fold of skin extending from the upper eyelid to or over the inner canthus of the eye, especially common in Asian peoples. Also called ep′ican′thic fold′
Bulbar Conjunctiva Translucent and colorless except when engorged with blood. Merges with tenon's capsule and sclera.
Palpebral Conjunctiva Contains goblet cells that produce a mucin layer of tear film (inner layer). Decreases with advancing age and inflammatory conditions. Vitamin A deficiency and severe dry eye syndrome associated with loss of goblet cells. Richly vascular
Medial Canthus The angle formed by the union of the upper and lower eyelids medially.
Lateral Canthus The angle formed by the junction of the lateral parts of the upper and lower eyelids.
Eyelashes Also called cilium. Serves to protect the eyes from dust particles.
Blepharitis Inflammation of the eyelid.
Keratitis Inflammation of the cornea of the eye.
Interstitial (stroma) keratitis Corneal scarring from invasion of blood vessels into corneal stroma due to inflammatory response.Since normal corneal tissue should be avascular and clear to allow light to pass. Blood vessel and cells as part of the I.R. causes scarring/hazing of cornea
Scleritis Inflammation of the sclera.
Episclera The outermost layer of the sclera.
Photophobia Extreme sensitivity to light.
Types of Astigmatism With-the-rule: cornea steeper in the vertical meridian (football lying on its side) and Against-the-rule: cornea steeper in the horizontal (football on a tee).
Endothelial Pump Transports out excess water, maintaining fluid balance and keeping the cornea from taking on excess fluid-edema
Ciliary Injection Peripheral hyperemia of the anterior ciliary vessels which produces a red color of the corneal stroma, and must be distinguished from hyperemia of the conjunctival vessels. May spread to the perilimbic corneal tissue. Called also ciliary flush.
Descemet's Membrane Is the basement membrane of the cornea. Produced constantly and thickens throughout life,very resistant to trauma, can regenerate if damaged, attachment to stroma is weak and can be detached easily.
Deturgescence State of relative dehydration necessary to maintain the transparency of the cornea of the eye
Tenon's Capsule Is located just under the conjunctiva and also surrounds the extraocular muscles and globe.
Limbus An edge or border, such as the corneal limbus at the edge of the cornea bordering the sclera.
Lamina Cribosa The portion of the sclera through which the fibers of the optic nerve pass.
Keratopathy Any abnormality with the cornea.
Arcus Senilis Is a gray or white arc visible above and below the outer part of the cornea — the clear, dome-like covering over the front of the eye. Eventually, the arc may become a complete ring around the cornea. Is common in older adults.
Heterochromia Is a difference in coloration, usually of the iris.
Krukenberg's Spindle A more or less vertical spindle-shaped deposition of brownish pigment on the corneal endothelium. On the posterior surface of the cornea in the pupillary area.
Aqueous Veins A tributary of the anterior ciliary vein that receives aqueous humor from the sinus venosus sclerae.
Normal IOP 10-20mm Hg
How aqueous drains from anterior chamber Exits via periphery of anterior chamber through trabecular meshwork into Schlemm's canal, and then to aqueous veins.
Diurnal curve of IOP Variation of IOP over a 24 hour period
Ectopia lens Is a displacement or malposition of the eye's crystalline lens from its normal location. A partial dislocation of a lens is termed lens subluxation or subluxated lens; a complete dislocation of a lens is termed lens luxation or luxated lens.
Y sutures Lens sutures, erect Y suture and posterior inverted Y suture.
Cortical Cataract A cataract that affects the lens cortex
Mature Cataract A swelling and complete opacification of the lens.
Morgagnian Cataract Cortex has liquefied and nucleus, which is usually brown brunescent, moves freely within.
Choroiditis Is an inflammation of the choroid and retina of the eye. It is a form of posterior uveitis.
Chorioretinitis Inflammation of the retina and choroid of the eye
Cells and Flare- make up “Cell” are individual cells floating in the AC. They look like dust specks floating in a movie theater projector light. “Flare” is protein floating in the AC from inflamed blood vessels. It looks like smoke floating in that same theater.
Choroidal Nevus Is typically a pigmented tumor of the blood vessel layer (choroid) beneath the retina. Like a freckle. Rarely requires treatment but does have potential of becoming malignant.
Drusen Tiny yellow/white build up between Bruch's membrane & the retinal pigment epithelium of the eye. Presence of a few small ("hard")ones are normal with advancing age. The presence of more in the macula is a sign of age-related macular degeneration.
Ectropion Uvea Is when the back layer of the iris spills over through the pupil and droops onto the front surface of the iris. It is usually benign but can be present with some types of tumors and unusual forms of glaucoma and in some rare diseases.
Lenticulodonesis Lens giggles. Zonules are weak.
Iris Nevus Very common. Most have melanin pigment. Do not have tendency to become malignant. Freckle.
Cavernous sinus A large collection of thin-walled veins in a cavity within the brain. Most of the blood from the face and orbit drain into this area.
Conjunctival fornix (cul-de-sac) Connecting palpebral and bulbar sections. Present superiorly, inferiorly, and laterally.
Caruncle Mound of tissue at the medial canthus. Contains accessory lacrimal glands and hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands.
Epiphora Excessive tearing.
Dacryocystis Inflammation of the lacrimal sac causing obstruction of the tube draining tears into the nose
Schwalbe's line is at the termination of descement's in the limbus.
Created by: Leequa



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