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Muscles

QuestionAnswer
The ability to shorten with force contractility
Anaerobic respiration without oxygen
Aerobic respiration with oxygen (more efficient)
oxygen debt the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells.
muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells.
origin the most stationary end of the muscle
insertion the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
muscle tone muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time
fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue.
isometric (equal distance) - the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
isotonic (equal tension), the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes
creatine phosphate stored high-energy molecule from muscles that rest which cannot stockpile ATP
muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
threshold a muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level
all-or-none response muscle fiber that will not contract maximally
acetylcholinesterase the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzyme
sliding filament mechanism the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
lag phase the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment the increase in number of motor units being activated
what is ATP needed for? energy for muscle contraction
where is ATP produced? mitochondria
resting membrane potential the charge difference across the membrane
action potential the brief reversal back of the charge
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
neuromuscular junction/ synapse the branched axons that connect to the muscle
motor unit single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
presynaptic terminal the enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
acetylcholine the secretion of neurotransmitters from the synaptic vessels
contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
extensibility the ability to be stretched
epimysium the connective tissue sheathe that surrounds each skeletal muscle
fascia another connective tissue located outside the epimysium, surrounds and separates muscles
myofibrils threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments - resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together
myosine myofilaments thick myofilaments - resemble bundles of minute golf club
sarcomeres actin and myosine myofilaments form highly ordered units
the basic structural and functional unity of the muscle sarcomere
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
prime mover one muscle that plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement
erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back, responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect.
thoracic muscles muscles that move the thorax
external intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing/ dome shaped muscle/ aids in breathing
rectus abdominus each side of the linea and alba
tendinous inscriptions cross the rectus abdominis at three or more locations
trapezius rotates scapula
serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
latissimus dorsi meially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm "swimmer muscles"
deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb
triceps brachii extends the forearm/ posterior compartment of the arm
biceps brachii flexes the forearm/ anterior compartment of the arm
brachialis flexes forearm
brachioradialis flexes and supinates the forearm
retinaculum (bracelet) strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist so that they do not "bowstring" during muscle contraction
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
extensor digitorum extends the fingers
gluteus maximus buttocks
quadriceps femoris extends leg; anterior thigh muscle
sartorius "tailors muscle"; flexes the thigh
hamstring muscles posterior thigh muscle; flexes the leg and extend the thigh
gastrocnemius and soleus form the calf muscle. they join to form the calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon) / flex the foot and toes
mastication chewing
frontalis the muscle that covers the frontal bone
temoralis the muscle that covers the temporal bone
Created by: JJeffers12