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Spinal Cord


Input that synapses in the dorsal horn. Sensory
Input that synapses in the ventral horn. Motor
Sensory input does one of two things: Innervates muscle immediately to cause a reflex. Travels up the white matter to the cerebral cortex via axons.
Define mixed spinal nerve. Nerve that contains both sensory and motor information.
Define dorsal root. Nerves that carry sensory info to the dorsal horn.
Define ventral root. Nerves that carry motor info towards the mixed spinal nerve.
Two functions of the spinal cord. Processes sensory input/motor output (reflexes). Relays sensory info to the brain and motor info to the PNS.
Where does the PNS start? Mixed spinal nerve
Define dorsal root ganglion. Cell bodies of primary sensory neurons.
How does info travel along the descending axon tracts? From the superficial cortex (pre-central gyrus).
Type of info travelling along descending axon. Motor
Type of info travelling along ascending axon. Sensory
Level of the vertebrae where spinal cord ends. Vertebrae L2
Number of cervical nerves. 8
Number of thoracic nerves. 12
Number of lumbar nerves. 5
Number of sacral nerves. 5
Define Cauda Equina. Nerve roots that extend from the spinal cord to reach vertebrae levels lower than L2.
Why do we take CSF samples from the lumbar region? To prevent accidental puncture of the spinal cord.
Reason for cervical and lumbar region enlargement. Greater amount of sensory info coming in and motor info going out.
Define dermatome. Region of skin innervated by a spinal segment.
Clinical significance of dermatomes. Allows you to determine approx. level of lesions.
Purpose of thoracic lateral horn. For the pre-ganglionic sympathetic fibres of the nervous system.
What are the five sensory modalities? Touch, pressure, proprioception, pain, temperature.
Info that travels up dorsal columns. Touch, pressure, proprioception.
Info that travels up lateral spinothalamic tracts. Pain, temperature.
Info that crosses over at the level of the spinal cord. Pain, temperature.
Info that crosses over at the medulla. Touch, pressure, proprioception.
Two sensory pathways. Dorsal Columns Spinothalamic Tract
What are the quantitative sensations? Touch, pressure, proprioception.
Define quantitative sensations. Things you can count/measure, usually the same for everyone.
What are the qualitative sensations? Pain, temperature.
Define qualitative sensations. Things that are subjective about how much there is and differ between people.
Compare the axon size of quantitative and qualitative sensations. Quantitative have HUGE tracts compared to qualitative.
Describe the dorsal column pathway. Sensory info comes in, synapses in the dorsal horn, travels all the way up the dorsal column (on the same side it entered), synapse to other side of spinal cord, ends up in the thalamus.
How does proprioception differ from touch and pressure? Most info from proprioception goes to cerebellum without crossing over.
Describe the spinothalamic pathway. Sensory info comes in, synapses in dorsal horn of spinal cord, immediately crosses over to contralateral side of spinal cord, ascends up to the spinothalamic tract to the thalamus, ends up in cortex if thalamus permits it.
Two ways to control pain. Gate Control Central Control
Where does the spinothalamic tract give off branches? Brainstem
Define upper motor neuron. Cell body located in grey matter of superficial cortex.
Define lower motor neuron. Cell body located in brainstem or spinal cord that innervates skeletal muscle.
Info that travels down the corticospinal tract. Motor
Where does motor info cross? Medulla
Describe the motor pathway from cortex to medulla. UMN descend through cortex as corona radiata, travels between thalamus and lentiform nuclei, down brainstem through cerebral peduncles, cross over at medulla.
Describe motor pathway from medulla to muscles. Travels down spinal cord after crossing over at medulla, synapses at ventral horn, gives rise to LMN to innervate skeletal muscle.
Lower motor neurons receive two inputs: UMN input Sensory for reflexes
Types of signs attributed to lesion above brainstem. Contralateral signs
Why would you expect contralateral signs from a lesion above the brainstem? Its above where everything crosses over so a left side lesion will effect the right side of the body.
Types of signs attributed to lesion below brainstem. Ipsilateral and contralateral signs.
Info that would be affected ipsilaterally by a lesion below the brainstem, why? Motor (paralysis), touch, pressure, and prorioception. They have yet to cross over to the other side of the CNS.
Info that would be affected contralaterally by a lesion below the brainstem, why? Pain and temperature. They have crossed over to the other side of the CNS.
Three arteries that supply the spinal cord? 1 Anterior Spinal artery 2 Posterior Spinal arteries
Where do spinal arteries arise from? Cerebral arteries in the brain
How do spinal arteries travel down the spinal cord? Vertically
Where can you find anastomoses in the spinal cord? Between the anterior and posterior spinal arteries but not in the grey matter.
Function of radicular artery. Participate in the anastomoses around the spinal cord.
Created by: clem773



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